LAB 51 & 53

B R ATO! name DIANL.- R \VAS LABORATORY s - - ASSESSMENT 2|22 Section The corresponds to the indicated Learning Outcome(s) § found at the beginning of the Laboratory Exercise. Breathing and Respiratory Volumes PART A: Assessments Complete the following statements: 1. When using the lung function model, what part of the respiratory system is represented by: @ a. The rubber sheeting? D\a pht a'% N b. The bclljm'lw Vl' t 3 c. The Y wbe? _Bight + €4~ ma) N d. Theballoons? _LUNgS 2. When the dmphmgtn%(;n!fn'lél:, i(}.llvc'-si/\(v: (I{lh?fl:n;']m;:c!avny ncreases . @ inter coastals 3. The ribs are raised primarily by contraction of the ex+rernal muscles, which increases the size of the thoracic cavity. @ . The primary muscles that help to force out more than the normal volume of air, by .pullixlg the ribs downward and inward, \ rnef] Intercasfas - Q@ are the 5. We inhale when the diaphragm __ Confract § @ PART B: Assessments 1. Test results for respiratory air volumes and capacities: & @ Tidal volume (resting) (TV) Explratory reserve volume (ERV) 1,200 mL Vital capacity (VC) (enter yours from table 51.2 or 51.3) s N A AL EEEERR ~ Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) 3,100 mL ~. Inspiratory capacity (IC) 3,600 mL [ Functional residual capacity (FRC) 2,400 mL *The values listed are most chafacteristic for a healthy, tall, young aduft male. In general, adult females have smaller bodles and therefore smaller lung volumes and capacitles. If ySur expected value for vital capacity Is considerably different than 4,800 mL, your other values wiil vary accordingly. 557
2. Complete the foltlqwing @ /i' a. How do your test rsylts compare with the expected values? - H 92 ; 3 i v ex, age, and height? b. How does your vital capacity compare with-the average value for a person of your sex, ag .o . g G : b ~alculate v al lung capacity? ¢. What measurement in addition to vital capacity is needed.before you can calculate your tot al lung cap F i : N ] T e reasons for the 3. If your experimental results are considerably different than the predicted vital capacities, propose re ; e 7 ties, differences. As you write this paragraph; consider factors such a smoking, physical fitness, respiratory and medications. (Your instructor miight have you make some class correlations from class data.) PART C: Assessments Match the air volumes in column A with the definitions In column B. Place the letter of your choice in the space provided. @ Column A Column B a. Expiratory reserve volume ZLX_ 1. Volume of air in addition to tidal volume that leaves the lungs _-b. Functional residual capacity during forced expiration & Inspiratory capacity % 2. Vital capacity plus residual volume p AnSEImIOEy reseeve volume —~— 3. Volume of air that remains in lungs after the most forceful €. Residual volume expiration £ Tidal volume g Total lung capacity k. Vital capacity 4. Volume of air that enters or leaves lungs during a respiratory cycle during forced inspiration 6. Maximum volume of air a person can exhale after taking the deepest possible breath 7. Maximum volume of air a person can inhale following 'IO/_ 5. Volume of air in addition to tidal volume that enters lungs /6% exhalation of the tidal volume i - 8. Volume of air remaining in the lungs following exhalation of the tidal volume _CRITICAL THINKING ASSESSMENT To determine possible obstruction of the airway, a forced expiratory volume (FEV) may be measured using a spirometer. Under normal circumstances, a healthy adult can expel 75% to 85% of the vital capacity in 1.0 second (FEV)). Predict how this would change in a person who has asthma, and explain your reasoning. (%) 558 mrfrffifififimmmmmmmm--- =
" - o - » » » b ) LTS ANE \WAS \BORATORY 2l 24 G2 ASSESSMENT w4 ) ~ The @ corresponds to the indicated Learning Outcome(s) &) found at the beginning of the Laboratory Exercise. Control of Breathing PART A: Assessments Complete the following statements: 1. The respiratory centers are widely scattered throughout the 20F) S and medulla oblongata of the brainstem. @ »dify the respiratory 4 & N 2. The 10! oq | respiratory group relays messages to the VRG and the DRG to mc rhythm 3. The l'+ rz:h respiratory group within the medulla oblongata gencrates the basic rhythm of quiet breathing. (&) i ' : ailoor A2 4. Central chemoreceptors are sensitive to changes in the blood concentrations of hydrogen ions and aibon Y 3 ~ AR ; aQseS B 5. As the blood concentration of carbon dioxide increases, the breathing rate _l_'_w_'(,iL—— (a2 de v €qseq @ 6. As aresult of increased breathing, the blood concentration of carbon dioxide is 7. Peripheral chemoreceptors include aortic bodies and the Mfl[ vf:fi 8. The principal muscles of forced expiration are the 1) 1€ T '\ +e r'nql_l f ]_Jp'/ ;Jg as S| ' 5 9. The principal muscles of inspiration are the Q_lg.fillmg, [ ¥a\he external intercostal muscles. PART B: Assessments 1. Record the results of your breathing tests in the table. f"'} Normal Hyperventilation (shortly after, i/~ P ' p ly ) &l / 2 ) / Rebreathing air 5 (shortly after) / Breath holding s (shortly after) / Exercise (shortly after) 7 ¢ \ 573
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