Week 1 fishery copy

Commercial industrial fisheries catch, take, and harvest fish from the marine environment that results in the sale or barter of all or part of the fish harvested. It may vary from one man with a small boat with hand casting nets or a few pot traps to a huge fleet of trawlers processing tons of fish each day. Generally, it is the larger vessels that go farther out and catch large volumes. Small scale fisheries produce 37 million tons of aquatic foods each year. Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms that include dish, mollusks, crustaceans, and aquatic plants. Industrial fish culture is large scale, high input whereas small scale is low input, low output. Small scale fisheries are traditional fisheries that involve fishing households, which is the opposite of industrial fishery. Small scale uses a smaller amount of capital and energy, smaller vessels, shorter fishing trips closer to shore, and is mostly used for local consumption. Industrial fishing provides a large quantity of food to many countries around the world. The major fisheries are owned by major corporations, but also by small families. Industrial fisheries are involved in the export mark and they have species that are used for medical use and in aquariums, they are "for-profit" purposed. Industrial fisheries are a multi billion dollar operation, $150 billion dollar global industry. A recreational fishery includes activities that are for personal, pleasure, or sport use. It is actually illegal to sell recreational catch and a marine recreational fishery is fishing of aquatic animals that can't be considered as a basic nutritional need for an individual. The fish are not traded or sold on export, domestic, or black markets. The techniques used are hand gathering, bow fishing, spearfishing, angling, trapping, netting, and the fishing pole. A specific example of an industrial commercial fishery in the southeast Pacific ocean would be the Peruvian anchovy (engraulis rigens) and they are the species that are harvested. It is the world's largest fishery by volume and the fleet has 850 vessels, they catch 2 million tons of anchovy which are important in the use in making fishmeal and fish oil. They are located off the coasts of Chile and Peru, and live in deep nutrient rich seawater. Because they form such massive school that can be kilometers across, they are heavily exploited by commercial fisheries. Peruvian anchovy is used for both food and in
the form of fishmeal that is used in animal and aqua feeds, as well as being marketed as a natural product in the form of fish oil which can be used for feed but also in capsules. Fish oil capsules can be found at your local drug store, and even at Walmart and are said to have numerous health benefits. Interesting fact: commercial fishing is banned in the arctic ocean under the agreement signed in Greenland in 2018, most of the region is covered by ice year round. However, recreational fishing takes place in the arctic ocean and it is estimated that there are 240 different species of fish! Indigenous people in the arctic fish through holes in the ice in the winter using a pole and in the summer a rod and line from a boat can be used. The arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) is the most caught species in recreational fisheries in the arctic as they prefer colder Temps 0-4 degrees C. They are in the western part of the arctic basin and the northwest and northeast coasts of Greenland. They can be doing at depths of up to 1,000 m and are under ice. It was estimated that in 2015 there were 9 billion polar cod they are harvested and used as a source of food. Small scale commercial fisheries are usually self-employed and provide for direct consumption to households or communities, and women often play a crucial role in post harvest and processing activities. One specific example of a small scale fishery is octopus (octopoda) trapping off the Galician coast in the northeastern Atlantic ocean. There is a vast artisanal fleet that has used traps and been dedicated to only catching this species since 1970. The average gross tonnage of the vessels are small and 66 traps are used per haul. Trammel and fyke nets, hooks, lines, pots, and traps are used to catch the octopus. Catches from traps contribute to 80% of the weight of the total catch per year. The species that is harvested is the octopus and it is marketed for food as a delicacy. It is also used for fishing bait and has been marketed for curing impotence and heightening sexual libido. Research does not support these claims but scientists do say that some nutrients in octopus can help with reproductive health.
Wild capture is the volume of wild catches landed for all commercial, industrial, recreational, and substance purposes. Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic animals. Wild capture fishery and the life they support is not artificially controlled in any meaningful way they exist in ocean's around coasts and continental shelves, but also in lakes and rivers. US marine aquaculture primarily produces Oysters, clam, mussels, shrimp, salmon, etc. Wild caught species typically include herring, sardines, mackerel, and tuna. Aquaculture involves the cultivation of both aquatic animals and plants while wild catch fisheries deal with catching, processing, and selling. Aquaculture is a science involving all realms of marine life. Wild caught species may have more nutrients and be a healthier option because ocean-raised fish have lower levels of omega 3s. Waste and chemicals from farmed fish can contaminate the environment, but wild catch species are in the pelagic waters. Aquaculture is supposed to increase availability of aquatic sourced food. It would be ideal for aquaculture to sustain each of the classes of fisheries because it is so crucial in supporting the seafood production of our nations. It creates year round jobs, it helps to rebuild protected or Endangered species and habitats, and enhances coastal resilience. However, in terms of feasibility or practicality, it would not be easy, especially for a commercial industrial fishery due to the size and range of the operation. It would be beneficial for each fishery because it would help to restore ecosystems and reduce environmental harm. If aquaculture was to sustain commercial industrial fisheries the carbon footprint may be reduced and less by catch might occur, as well as a reduction in overfishing. If it was to sustain small scale fisheries, that would be ideal because it could boost nutrition, but it would also be important that the fisher's input was still received and heard. As far as recreational fisheries go, aquaculture could be feasible to sustain that in terms of strengthening the food system but I would also have to wonder if it would make recreational fishing disappear over time because of becoming controlled more and monitored. I don't think recreational fishing would remain recreational fishing, it would be more of commercial fishery of sustained by aquaculture.
In annual harvests, overfishing can change the remaining size of the fish and the speed of maturity, as well as reproduction. When fish are taken out of the ocean at an alarming rate, an imbalance is created that disrupts the food chain and can lead to a drastic reduction of marine life. Climate change can affect the annual harvest because of migration patterns that may change due to the warming water or a species inability to adapt and failure to thrive occurs. Ocean acidification can occur leading to loss of species. Weather can affect an annual harvest because of the Temps of the water and the growth rate of the fish. Environmental issues such as pollution, runoff, chemicals, and the carbon footprint can affect the annual harvest because of harmful toxins that are put into the water that can effect the fish. Recreational fish harvest around the world for total catch is approximately 12% of the global fish harvest. Small scale fisheries harvest around the world for total catch is roughly 40% of the global fish harvest. Commercial industrial fishery harvest around the world for total catch is around 55% of the global fish harvest. For my contribution to the atlas project I would like to do my region as Florida, I am trying to decide what regions specifically though at this time. I am between Islamorada in the keys and sailfish or another region here that has commercial tuna fishing. I do know that I prefer the Gulf side over the Atlantic so I am working on narrowing it down. References: About Small-scale Fisheries . (n.d.). Ssfhub.org. https://ssfhub.org/about-small-scale-fisheries? __ptLanguage=en-US
Recreational Fisheries - OECD. (n.d.). Www.oecd.org. https://www.oecd.org/greengrowth/fisheries/recreational-fisheries.htm Poortvliet, D. (2019, May 3). World's largest commercial fishery publicly tracked on Global Fishing Watch map . Global Fishing Watch. https://globalfishingwatch.org/news- views/largest-commercial-fishery-tracked-gfw-map/#:~:text=Peruvian%20anchovy %20feed%20in%20these Bañón, R., Otero, J., Campelos-Álvarez, J. M., Garazo, A., & Alonso-Fernández, A. (2018). The traditional small-scale octopus trap fishery off the Galician coast (Northeastern Atlantic): Historical notes and current fishery dynamics. Fisheries Research, 206, 115-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2018.05.005 Difference Between Aquaculture and Fisheries | Difference Between . (n.d.). http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/difference-between-aquaculture- and-fisheries/#:~:text=While%20fisheries%20are%20solely%20related The Agreement to Prevent Unregulated High Seas Fisheries in the Central Arctic Ocean Enters into Force . (n.d.). United States Department of State. Retrieved July 29, 2023, from https://www.state.gov/the-agreement-to-prevent-unregulated-high-seas-fisheries-in- the-central-arctic-ocean-enters-into-force/#:~:text=There%20are%20currently%20no %20commercial
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