Experimental- Steps for Conducting Research

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1 Using Experimental Designs for Conducting Research Criteria: (a) Define Population (i.e. Students at a Southeastern university who want to improve their study skills and enroll in the Student Success Initiative, about 1500 (b) Conduct a Power Analysis (what will your sample be (n= 100); (c) randomly select sample from 100, and (d) randomly assign to two groups, experimental and control (n - 50) 1. Choose a topic : How motivation affects students' academic performance 2. Select a sample , college students. 3. Conduct research . a. Motivation - operationalize (See LASSI-2 to start) b. Overall motivation c. Motivation by Gender d. Motivation by Ethnicity e. Intervention programs and efficacy of programs. 4. Develop a hypothesis from literature . College students enrolled in the Student Success Initiative Program will increase their motivation and this may improve their academic performance. 5. Theory. Use a theory to understand how motivation impacts academic performance (i .e. Self-Determination Theory [SDT], Ryan & Deci, 2019). 6. Research Question. Is there a statistically significant difference between students who participated in the Student Success Initiative and students who did not participate in the Student Success Initiative on motivation levels? 7. Ho There is no difference between students who participated in the Student Success Initiative and students who did not participate in the Student Success Initiative on motivation levels? 8. Ha: There is a difference between students who participated in the Student Success Initiative and students who did not participate in the Student Success Initiative on motivation levels? 9. How will Motivation be measured? The LASSI The Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI-II, 2nd edition) (Weinstein & Palmer, 2002) was used for collecting data from students. Specifically, the subscale for motivation was used for this research. 10.Design . A between subjects experimental design (treatment vs. control) was used to select participants 11.Students were recruited by advertisements in the student newspaper for the Student Success Initiative, a program designed to assist students succeed in college. 12.A power analysis indicated that 100 participants were needed to find statistical significance with a medium effect size. The rest of the students participated in the program, but, were not part of the study. 13.A Table of Random Numbers (Appendix B) was used to (a) randomly select a sample of 100. Subsequently, 50 participants were assigned to group A (treatment) and group B (control). 14.Data were gathered with the LASSI_2 Motivation subscale.
2 15.Data were analyzed to answer the research question. Is there a statistically significant difference between students who participated in the Student Success Initiative and students who did not participate in the Student Success Initiative on motivation levels? 16.Results and Interpretation. PROBABILITY SAMPLING/ NONPROBABILITY SAMPLE SELECTION Probability - Test the Null Hypothesis Probability sampling - What is the probability that you would reject the null hypothesis? We are testing the null hypothesis Research Question. Is there a statistically significant difference between students who participated in the Student Success Initiative and students who did not participate in the Student Success Initiative on motivation levels? Identify Independent variable. How many levels? Identify Dependent variable. *concentration* Identify 4 levels of measurement? Which level of measurement is used for IV? Which level of measurement is used for DV? 1. Nominal - gender 2. Ordinal - ranking order 3. Interval - 1-100 4. Ratio - height, weight (absolute) How will motivation be measured? *interval* What is example of questions? What are the anchors for questions? *how they collected the data* What is population? What is sample? How to select sample. How many are needed? G*Power statistical analysis http://www.gpower.hhu.de/en.html Typically, for an experimental design, 30 in each group. For this analysis, we will use 50 in each group (Treatment, Control) for a total of n=100. Population - all of the students that signed up (n = 1800) Sample - n = 100 Control = 50 Treatment = 50 Control students placed on Wait List to participate in Student Success Initiative next semester
3 Simple Random Sample Define Population (All participants who signed up for SSI) = 1800 Prepare List of all students and number them Refer to Table of Random Numbers OR Use cell phone and go to random numbers generator range 1-1800, select the first 100. Randomly assign to Treatment Group and Control Group Use Random Number Generator 1 st 50 go to Treatment Group, rest assigned to Control Stratified Sampling Want an n = 100; 25 in each group By Classification (Freshman [40% of 1800 = 720]; Sophomores [35% of 1800 = 630], Juniors [10% of 1800 = 180[ and Seniors [15% of 1800 = 270]. Refer to Random Number Generator Select (i.e. select 25 out of 720 for Freshman....... Cluster Sampling Define clusters by zip codes Make a directory of those students (i.e. 77341, 78345, 76451,,,,,) If 15 clusters, randomly select 5 clusters Systematic Sampling Develop a list of 1800 students. Select every 10 th person to participate. Homework Assignment. Use simple Random Selection and Assignment for answering the research question. Is there a difference between Poverty Simulation participants and Poverty Simulation non-participants on amount of empathy? What is IV? Poverty Simulation participants/non-participants What is DV? empathy What level of measurement is IV? Nominal What level of measurement is DV? Interval How will you collect information on empathy? Interval level (continuous) Population - Students at RELLIS in the TAMUK program population (n = 60) Treatment Group = _ 30 _, Control Group = _ 30 _ Provide Steps. Use Stratified Sampling. Male/female, different schools, etc. Use Cluster Sampling zip codes
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