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University of New South Wales **We aren't endorsed by this school
Aug 16, 2023
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This study was based on gendered (IV) differences in sleeping time (DV), where the null hypothesis is that there is no difference in sleeping duration between males and females, and the research hypothesis is that there is a difference between males and females. In Q2, which was representative of participant gender, the mode was 2 (98 female respondents) with male respondents numbering 26. Of the total 126 respondents, there was a valid percentage of 124 (2 missing responses) ( Appendix A ). In Q39, denoting participant sleeping times the mean was ~7.36 hours of sleeping time, the median was 7 hours of sleeping time, the range was 9, the minimum and maximum were 3 and 12 hours respectively, the standard deviation was 1.3701 ( Appendix B ). The data for males yielded a skewness value of 1.474, falling between -2 and +2, the kurtosis value was 5.402 falling between -7 and +7 ( Appendix C) thus being normally distributed. The data for females yielded a skewness value of -0.454 and a kurtosis value of 1.080 (Appendix D) and thus was normally distributed, this was also visually confirmed after considering the generated histograms ( Appendix E/F ). Despite the male participant subgroup totalling 26 and falling under the assumed sample size the independent variable does not deviate significantly from t-test sample assumptions, and as such the test was conducted in consideration of the limited sample size. A Levene test was conducted, where the null hypothesis is that there is equal variance in males (M = 7.404, SD = 1.304) and females (M = 7.335, SD = ~1.399), and the research hypothesis where male and female variances are not equal. Given a p-value of 0.431, there was an inequality in variance and the null hypothesis was rejected. As such the adjusted t-test values were utilised with a t-test value of 0.235 and a p-value of 0.815. A Cohen's D value of 0.50 ( Appendix G) , indicated that the difference between male and female sleep time is small/negligible. Literature regarding gender differences in sleeping duration also indicated similar findings (Burgurd and Ailshire 2013) in which female respondents had longer sleeping times, even when compared their male counterparts with similar life demographics/stages. Much like this study, these differences were concluded to be statistically significant but not large ranging from '5 minutes favouring me to about 28 minutes favouring women,' (Burgurd and Ailshire 2013: 14).
Appendix B Appendix A
Appendix C
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