Wandiri Socio-Economic Challenges Facing Sudanese Women Refugees In Kasarani Division, Nairobi And

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problem"146. The PPG sees "a pattern, where intercommunity cohesion and good relations are threatened when one group acquires power and other communities resort to violent conflict as a tool to check hegemonisation of ethnic interests"147. The cases in Trans-Nzoia, Pokot, Samburu and Laikipias are exemplary. Judging from the high level ethnic-based clientilism IGAD views Kenya's political system to be '"highly personalized, neo-patrimonial and divided with a high level of corruption and a history of decision making that is based on political exigencies'"'*8. IGAD posits that this kind of a political system impacts on policy making and tends to "exacerbate disregard for the pastoralist communities who remain under-developed, marginalised in the ethnic coalition- building that drives politics, and are progressively alienated from their land"149. The under- development has engendered higher levels of insecurity internally and across border150. Inferring from the foregoing, gerontocratic governance would enable the NRV communities forge ahead an independent agenda, but as argued earlier, gerontocracy has not only been decimated by proliferation of small arms; the "prominent trees parliaments" democracy, a feature which rooted in gerontocratic control has been seized by warlords and elitists; influence and prominence are now gauged in terms of relative power expressed by ownership of cattle and guns151. The "Prominent Trees Parliaments" became very important Report on the PPG open Forum to Discuss Conflict in Northern Kenya and Connected Purposes, (Centre for Minority rights and Development, intermediate Group and Kenya Livestock Marketing council, 21" April 2005, JACARANDA Hotel, Nairobi), web: www.ccmiride.info last visited 05 January 2009. 147 Ibid. 's See IGAD. Livestock Policy Initiative; Politically Feasible Livestock Policy Reform in Kenya. (Policy Brief). Based on: The Political Economy of Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Reform in Kenya, Brendan McSherry and Jennifer N. Brass. Date of Publication: 2007 14 ,1 Ibid. i0 This IGAD brief rates it among the highest in the world. 151 The "Kokwo" in East Pokot and Marakwet, or "Tree of Men" in Turkana. Women do not take part in "Kowko" or "Tree of Men". If they attend, they are not allowed to speak especially if their in laws are present there. Contrary to the definition given by Edmund Barrows, is not essentially the tree but the council of Pokot elders which sits under a prominent special shade tree, to discuss and plan activities grazing and grazing patterns. See Edmund Barrows. Trees and Pastoralists: The Case of Pokot and Turkana. (ODI, Social Forestry Network, 48
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