Abrookshawchild centered theories and framework module 3101823

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Child-Centered Theories and Frameworks DAP The child is that the center of all curriculum and instruction decisions. In their DAP position statement, NAEYC (2021) recognizes the importance of each child's commonality (development based on age), individuality (needs, interests, progress), and context (family and community). While the child is always at the center, we must understand that child as a member of a family and other communities. John Dewey The ideas and work of John Dewey still influence early childhood education today. Dewey (1938) believed that the school should act as a community and that the child must be at the center of the curriculum. Dewey first introduced an integrated curriculum or curriculum that encourages learning in multiple domains and subjects simultaneously. This curriculum approach is still used in education today and is reflected in statements such as, "Developing the "whole child." Dewey believed that all curricula must be centered on and relevant to the child. Ecological Systems Theory Urie Bronfenbrenner's (2004) Ecological System's Theory emphasizes the various influences on a child. Center: The child is at the center of his or her own ecological system. In this circle, influences might include the child's biology, temperament, and experiences. How children experience curriculum and instruction has the most significant impact. Microsystems: Microsystems are the systems that directly interact with the child. For example, the child's family, the immediate neighborhood, and the childcare program are microsystems. Microsystems have the most influence on children because of the frequency and duration of interactions with the child. Reflect on the daily interactions and experiences that a program provides. How will this impact young children? Mesosystems: Mesosystems are the interactions between the various microsystems. For example, the interaction between the family and the childcare program is a mesosystem. Family partnerships should help inform the curriculum.
Exosystem: The exosystem influences the child, but the child does not have direct access or participation. For example, ratio and group size regulations in a childcare program will impact the child and curriculum and instruction; however, the child does not directly participate in setting the regulations. Macrosystem: The macrosystem is the broadest category and encompasses society, values, and laws. It is important to note that while individual families, programs, and communities may differ, society's broader laws and structure remain the same. Chronosystem: Later in his work, Bronfenbrenner included the chronosystem or the influence of time. The longer the duration of exposure to a curriculum and instruction, the greater the influence. The child remains at the center of this theory. Examples were provided but continue to think about all the ways each ecological system influences the curriculum. Emergent Curriculum Emergent curriculum is considered child centered. In this curriculum, the concepts taught, and the themes explored naturally emerge from the children. An educator using emergent curriculum recalls, "We made plans from day to day in response to our observations and reflections on children's needs and interests. The curriculum was written out only after it had taken place, not laid out in advance except in broad terms" (Jones, 2012). Simply put, the curriculum is never pre-set, but naturally, it emerges each day depending on the needs and interests of the children.
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