Exosystem: The exosystem influences the child, but the child does not have direct access or
participation. For example, ratio and group size regulations in a childcare program will impact
the child and curriculum and instruction; however, the child does not directly participate in
setting the regulations.
Macrosystem: The macrosystem is the broadest category and encompasses society, values,
and laws. It is important to note that while individual families, programs, and communities
may differ, society's broader laws and structure remain the same.
Chronosystem: Later in his work, Bronfenbrenner included the chronosystem or the
influence of time. The longer the duration of exposure to a curriculum and instruction, the
greater the influence.
The child remains at the center of this theory. Examples were provided but continue to think
about all the ways each ecological system influences the curriculum.
Emergent curriculum is considered child centered. In this curriculum, the concepts taught,
and the themes explored naturally emerge from the children. An educator using emergent
curriculum recalls, "We made plans from day to day in response to our observations and
reflections on children's needs and interests. The curriculum was written out only after it had
taken place, not laid out in advance except in broad terms" (Jones, 2012). Simply put, the
curriculum is never pre-set, but naturally, it emerges each day depending on the needs and
interests of the children.