Gender and Society 453 (2:1)

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Soc 453 2/1 notes chapter 1 Gender and Society Defining women's studies o The study of power and gender relationships using educational techniques of cooperation and consciousness- raising to enable women to learn together as women o First officially established WS program was introduced at San Diego state in 1970 o Defined by National Women Studies Association as: an educational strategy for Feminist theories and actions o Community settings o Academic settings o Evolution of feminist thought and theory o Webster's dictionary (1994) feminism= noun; influence of women; advocacy of this; of women's political rights, etc. Feminism is multi-faceted o Why is feminism so stigmatized? o "feminism has fought no wars. It has killed no opponents. It has set up no concentration camps, starved no enemies, practiced no cruelties. Its battles have been for education, for the vote, for better working education.... How would you define a feminist? Then and now... o 2000- 2018 survey responses o What's changed o What has stayed the same? o And how do you explain all that? Feminism and its branches o Liberal feminism o Also called egalitarian or mainstream feminism- most moderate; society does not have to be restructured o Socialist feminism o Also called Marxist feminism- links the inferior position of women to a class- based analysis of capitalism; male privilege and patriarchy o Radical feminism o Oppression of women and male Multi-cultural and global feminism o Working for change across national boundaries; no woman is free until the conditions that oppress women worldwide are eliminated o Focus- cultural Ecofeminism o Environmental activism and deep ecology movement o Connect degradation and oppression of women with degradation of the ecosystem o Earth based spiritual system Historian Gerda Lerner o She suggest that the writing of women's history can be arranged in 4 stages of development o Compensatory
Soc 453 2/1 notes chapter 1 o Contribution o Rewriting Sociological perspective o Sex- anatomical and hormonal features that differentiate males and females biologically o Gender- social roles and expected behaviors and traits associated with the sexes; cultural definitions of what it means to be male or female o Gender assignment o Biosocial approach vs. social constructionist approach o Political control o Politics of sexual control Marxist term o False consciousness o A lack of awareness of one's real position within the class structure; not seeing what is really controlling you with ideas, beliefs- making you do things that not truly in your own best interest. o Ask: what is the structure of this society? o Where does it stand in human history? Matrix of domination o Both women's studies and men's studies explore race, class, and gender as reforming a matrix of domination - relations between these aspects of society together establish an interlocking system of domination- one cannot really be understood without the others o Intersectionality - both a theoretical orientation and framework for social action o Cisgender - people whose sex category and gender identity match up. History and feminism o Women have lacked a history of their own- have had few role models and heroines to emulate- making it difficult to even imagine a world where the experiences and needs of men where the experiences and needs of men where the primary norm. Social movement o Sociologist define social movements as groups that act to promote or resist changes in society o Involve perceived sense to injustice and wish Abolotion movement o Frederick douglas o Right has no sex- truth has no color o Henry Blackwell, abolitionist married o Lucy stone" I expect to plead not for the slave only but for The grimke sister: sarah and Angelina (early 1800s) o 1836- wrote "an appeal to the Christian women of the south o Their behavior was denounced as "unwomanly and unchristianly" o Angelina "what then can woman do for the slave, when she herself for Temerpance movement
Soc 453 2/1 notes chapter 1 o Women's Christian temperance union moto: do everthing! For women and children! (est.1873) o Pressed for laws to restrict sale and consumption of alcohol o Because no legal protection against abuse or abandonment by drunken husbands o Hygiene, prostitution, work in prisons, and schools, o Men feared women voting to actually make alcohol illegal Mary wallstonecraft (1759-1797) o Wrote a vindication of the Settlement houses and reform o Jane Addams o Founder of full house in Chicago o Settlement houses attracted gifted women and men- turning many from philanthropists to reformers o Julia lathrop- first woman to serve as director for the children's bureau in the US dept. of labor The suffrage movement beginnings o 1840- world anti-slavery convention in London- women
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