A.L.E. Key Terms Oct 18

Holland 1 Bella Holland CJE 4114-001 Professor Bromley 18 October, 2022 Key Terms from the Textbook Chapters Chapter 7 1. "Backbone of policing"- Patrol is the referred to as the "Backbone of Policing." The largest percentage of police personnel is assigned to patrol. They are considered the "Backbone of Policing" because of the necessary and critical functions that the officers assigned to this division handle on a daily basis. These officers work in every type of weather imaginable, every day of the year, every hour of the day. 2. Three functions of patrol- The three major types of patrol strategies for patrol officers are active patrol, random patrol, and directed patrol. Patrol services include many things. Some examples of patrol services are responding to emergency calls for service, apprehending criminal offenders, providing mutual aid and assistance to other agencies for emergency and law enforcement-related activities. The function of patrol is to enforce the law, perform welfare tasks, prevent crime, and protect the innocent. 3. Allocation of police officers to patrol- Data should include calls- for-service and officer-initiated incidents, as well as the time and location of police activity. Data analysis involves the calculation of time spent completing various types of calls-for- service and officer-initiated incidents. Other factors that should be considered when developing a patrol allocation model include features of the district, type of patrol technique used, political influence, time needed to respond to an incident, and the number of available officers. 4. Poor Neighborhoods- By increasing the availability of affordable housing and housing choice for low-income families in resource-rich areas, cities, towns, and counties can help to prevent the creation of new areas of concentrated poverty. It can also potentially reduce the number of residents in such areas. Neighborhoods of concentrated poverty can isolate residents from the services and supports they need. Neighborhoods of concentrated poverty isolate their residents from the resources and networks they need to reach their potential and deprive the larger community of the neighborhood's human capital. 5. Automobile patrol- Automobile patrol is a method of police patrol utilizing radio technology and the speed of automobiles to respond rapidly to calls for service. Automobiles allowed police to expand patrol beats and reduced the time required for responding to incidents. The automobile is the most common form of patrol. Helicopters and horses are other means of mobile patrol, but are not all that common. 6. Foot patrol- Foot patrols facilitate relationship building between the agency and the community and enhance the enforcement and problem-solving capabilities of law enforcement. Combined with other scientific evidence that suggests law enforcement can reduce serious crime by using foot patrols, it may be time to have foot patrols, particularly in high-risk areas. The study highlights the positive interactions occurring between foot patrol officers and community members, even in some of the most challenging communities. Foot patrol can be very beneficial. 7. Departmental styles- Three departmental styles of policing are the watchman, which puts primary emphasis on the maintenance of order, recognizing that full enforcement is impossible. The second is the legalistic department, which emphasizes uniform and full enforcement. The third is the service style, characterized by the use of informal, nonarrest measures designed to assist citizens. Muir identifies four individual styles of policing, including the professional, who invokes the law only
Holland 2 after thoughtful analysis of each situation, the reciprocator, who stimulates conformity to the law by using psychological techniques in interaction with individual citizens, the enforcer, who rigidly applies the law in every circumstance and the avoider, who shuns frequent confrontations with citizens and intervenes only where threats to the community are obvious and serious. 8. James Q. Wilson's organizational styles- James Q. Wilson identified three styles of policing: watchman style, legalistic style, and service style. The watchman style distinguishes between two mandates of policing: order maintenance and law enforcement. The legalistic style exercises little discretion and enforces the law by writing more tickets, making more arrests, and encouraging victims to sign complaints. The service style shares characteristics with the other two styles but focuses primarily on service to the community and the citizens. 9. Types of calls for service- Calls for service are requests from citizens for police assistance. Most calls for service originate when a citizen dials either an emergency number such as 911 or a nonemergency number for the local police department. Calls for service range from minor problems in the neighborhood (traffic complaints, loud neighbors, and graffiti) to the most serious crimes (burglaries, robberies, and homicides). The obligation of a police department is to respond to calls for service in an efficient and effective manner. 10. Officer use of patrol time- Contemporary police practice advocates the importance of proactive policing activities. Proactive policing reforms emphasize self-initiated tasks during unassigned patrol time and directed activities based on supervisor review of crime analysis and problem identification. Our study analyzes data from systematic social observations of police patrol officers to examine how officers spent their discretionary time. We find that, on average, over three quarters of a patrol officers' shift is unassigned. 11. Response Time- Response time includes the time taken to transmit the inquiry, process it by the computer, and transmit the response back to the terminal. Response time is frequently used as a measure of the performance of an interactive system. A lower response time reduces image blurring or ghosting and helps in getting better picture quality. There are some gaming monitors that are available with a response time of one millisecond, however, a basic LCD response time is under 10- millisecond. 12. The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment- An experiment involving variations in the level of routine preventive patrol within 15 Kansas City police beats found that decreasing or increasing routine preventive patrol within the range tested had no effect on crime, citizen fear of crime, community attitudes toward the police, the delivery of police service, police response time, or traffic accidents. The 12-month Kansas City experiment began in 1972 under a grant from the Police Foundation. It took place in a 32-square-mile area that had a 1970 population of 148,395 and that had a mixture of commercial and residential development. Study data came from official statistics, participant observations, and surveys of citizens and businesses. 13. The Newark Foot Patrol Experiment- The study used matched sets of beats in Newark to compare the effects of continuing and discontinuing foot patrols. In Newark, assignment logs of all existing foot posts were examined to determine which had been patrolled on foot consistently since the beginning of the Safe and Clean Neighborhoods program. The Newark foot patrol experiment was the first large scale study to study a police function such as this in United States history. The conclusion of The Newark Foot Patrol Experiment, a study to provide funds for foot patrol officers and evaluate their effect on public fear and safety. 14. Differential Response to calls- Differential response, also called alternative response, is a system reform that establishes multiple pathways to respond to child maltreatment reports. Although various types of differential response systems are currently being used by police departments as a means for
Holland 3 classifying calls to determine appropriate response and priorities, few departments have developed a comprehensive differential response system in which the full range of possibilities is addressed. Furthermore, most of these systems are plagued with a number of problems, such as confusion over priority designations for in-progress calls, basic patrol critical calls, and basic patrol calls, and increased travel time caused by indiscriminate adherence to first-come, first-served dispatch within priorities. Goals of the field-test program are to assure that the most urgent calls for service receive priority treatment, that the rate of noncritical calls for service handled by immediate mobile response is reduced, and that the rate of critical calls handled by mobile response is increased. 15. Reverse 911- Reverse 911 is a general term that describes a process frequently used to contact citizens and businesses by matching a telephone number with an address. It is a public safety communications technology used by public safety organizations in Canada and the United States to communicate with groups. The system uses a database of telephone numbers and associated addresses. When tied into geographic information systems, it can be used to deliver recorded emergency notifications to a selected set of telephone service subscribers. 16. Directed patrol- Directed patrolling simply means to add visible patrols, whether in vehicles or on foot, when and where more crime is expected. Directed patrol is the traditional approach applied within hot spots. Based on deterrence, officers provide a substantial visible presence. Directed patrol is a tactic used by law enforcement officers to try to prevent crime before it happens, from running traffic enforcement on a street where speeding is a concern to keeping surveillance on a house in a neighborhood where drugs deals are occurring to paying close attention to any other public safety issue. Chapter 8 1. Order maintenance- Order maintenance is the central function of the police and courts. To be able to effectively maintain order, the police and the courts must be able to bring the behavior of most of those within society into compliance with the law and the directives of legal authorities such as police officers and judges. Order maintenance is the aspect of policing concerned with regulating the fair use of public spaces. Examples include the enforcement of rules that restrict public drinking, noise pollution, public indecency, verbal harassment, and aggressive panhandling. 2. Citizen expectations in non-crime incidents (Myer)- Maintaining the popular support of the majority of the citizens within the jurisdiction is a responsibility of every law enforcement executive and officer in a democratic society. Last month's research newsletter examined the findings of the 27 most recently published research studies on overall citizen satisfaction with the police. These studies revealed that the strongest factor influencing general citizen satisfaction with, and trust in, the police is having had a recent negative contact with the police themselves, or knowing a friend or relative who recently experienced a negative contact with the police. Those individuals who had experienced a recent negative interaction with law enforcement officers were significantly more likely to hold very negative attitudes toward all law enforcement officers. 3. Disturbance- Disturbance is to break the law by fighting or behaving extremely noisily in public. Offences relating to causing a disturbance are found in Part V of the Criminal Code relating to "Sexual Offences, Public Morals and Disorderly Conduct". Offences under s. 175 [causing a disturbance] are straight summary conviction offence. he legal offense of engaging in public behavior which is violent, rowdy, or disruptive. 4. Domestic violence- Domestic violence is a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner. Domestic violence can be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, psychological, or technological actions or
Holland 4 threats of actions or other patterns of coercive behavior that influence another person within an intimate partner relationship. This includes any behaviors that intimidate, manipulate, humiliate, isolate, frighten, terrorize, coerce, threaten, blame, hurt, injure, or wound someone. 5. Calling the police- The Police will ask for your details and about what has happened. They'll ask if you are safe, and give you some advice. They might send a car around to help sort out the situation. Depending on if anyone is hurt / or if there's property damage, they might ask you if you want to press charges. 6. Police options in handling domestic disturbances- Domestic violence is abusive behavior in any relationship, as defined by law, which is used to gain or maintain power and control over a current or former intimate partner or family or household member. Domestic violence may include physical, sexual, emotional, economic, and psychological actions or threats of actions. Abusers may also commit verbal threats, acts of intimidation, property damage, animal cruelty, elder and child abuse, strangulation, and stalking. The trauma and harm caused by domestic violence can be complex. 7. The impact of arrest on domestic violence- Domestic violence affects one's thoughts, feelings and behaviors and can significantly impact one's mental stability. Increased anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms are commonly observed among survivors of domestic violence. These include post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and suicidal thoughts. One study shows that the likelihood of abused women experiencing PTSD is seven times higher than for those who have not been abused. 8. Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment (findings)- The experiment, conducted from early 1981 to mid-1982, applied only to simple domestic assaults, where both the suspect and victim were present when the police arrived. The design called for each officer to carry a pad of report forms, color coded for the three different police responses. Each time the officers encountered a situation that fit the experiment's criteria they were expected to take the action indicated by the report form on the top of the pad. Police reports were given to the research staff for follow up. 9. The Omaha Domestic Violence Research- The Omaha Domestic Violence Police Experiment, presented in this report, was designed, along with five other projects funded by the National Institute of Justice, to determine if the findings reported for the Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment could be replicated elsewhere. The Omaha experiment focused on eligible domestic assault cases reported to the police throughout the city between 4:00 p.m. and 12:00 midnight over the study period. Domestic assault cases were randomly assigned to "arrest", "separation", or "mediation." Data on assaults for 6 months after the intervention were obtained from police reports and victim self-reports. Arrest, by itself, apparently did not deter continued domestic conflict any more than separation of the parties or mediation. 10. The New Homeless Problem- America's homelessness problem has the makings of an acute crisis. Shelters across the U.S. are reporting a surge in people looking for help, with wait lists doubling or tripling in recent months. The number of homeless people outside of shelters is also probably rising, experts say. Some of them live in encampments, which have popped up in parks and other public spaces in major cities from Washington, D.C., to Seattle since the pandemic began. 11. Police Executive Research Forum (PERF)- PERF is a police research and policy organization and a provider of management services, technical assistance, and executive-level education to support law enforcement agencies. PERF helps to improve the delivery of police services through the exercise of strong national leadership; public debate of police and criminal justice issues; and research and policy development. PERF produces publications that summarize its research findings and development of policy guidance and best practices. In addition to developing national policy
Holland 5 guidance and information about best practices in policing, PERF offers several types of direct assistance to law enforcement agencies. 12. Police discretion in handling the mentally ill- Many urban centers, responding to mentally ill people has become a large part of the police peacekeeping function. Several factors have increased the likelihood of police encounters like, deinstitutionalization in the 1960's, cutbacks in Federal mental health funding, and changes in the legal code governing patient rights and affirming the right of a mentally ill person to live in the community without psychiatric treatment. At the same time, society's tolerance of mentally ill persons in the community is limited. Given the stereotype of mentally disordered people as dangerous, citizens often call upon the police to "do something" in situations involving mentally ill individuals, particularly when they exhibit the more frightening and disturbing signs of mental disorder. 13. Old problems/new programs (handling the mentally ill)- In early 19th century America, care for the mentally ill was almost non-existent: the afflicted were usually relegated to prisons, almshouses, or inadequate supervision by families. Treatment, if provided, paralleled other medical treatments of the time, including bloodletting and purgatives. Now the most robustly studied, best-understood, and most-used is cognitive behavioral therapy. Other effective therapies include light therapy, hypnosis, and mindfulness-based treatments, among others. 14. Police role in policing juveniles- Police officers serve a vital role in the safety and well-being of the community and society at large. They are oftentimes called the gatekeepers to the criminal justice system because they are typically the first ones on the scene when there's an issue, problem, or when a crime has been committed. They wear many hats when it comes to juvenile delinquency. Police officers have lots of discretion when it comes to how they handle a case or person. 15. Black and Reiss research- This study replicated the 1970 research of Black and Reiss, which presented an empirical portrait of the policing of juveniles. Data were collected by participant observers traveling with police on a random time sample basis. Of the 1,978 police-citizen interactions coded as encounters, 200 involved violators under 18. While Black and Reiss concluded that most deviant acts by juveniles were detected by citizens, this study found that 52 percent of the encounters were police initiated.
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