Final SOCI 358

Final SOCI 358 GENDER in demography 1. TOPIC: Gender inequality in the labour market causing lower birth rates As seen in our class notes from week 8, "gender-role ideologies play an important role in determining how the responsibilities for earning and caring are distributed according to gender". Women, traditionally in the past, were expected to be caregivers, nurturing, and have more domesticated duties. This standard has led to inequalities in the labour market, resulting in lower birth rates in the long run. For instance, "employers in this type of labour market are likely to engage in statistical discrimination, basing hiring and training decisions for individual women on their estimate of the probability that women will quit their jobs when they bear children" (Brinton & Lee, 2016, pg. 413). This ideology has either encouraged women to become more independent and continuously delay childbearing, or it has imposed an additional stress that growing a family may lead to job loss. Research has shown that "parenthood is associated with a wage penalty for women and a wage premium for men" (Waite & Denier, 2015, pg. 567). Therefore, this may decrease the likelihood of having babies. Although, research has found that societies that have more of a flexible egalitarian normative framework, where men women are offered to flexibility and social acceptance with regard to their jobs and family, are more likely to have a positive effect on fertility. Heterosexual men receive a premium for being married over being single or cohabiting (Waite & Denier, 2015, pg. 565) Parenthood is associated with a wage penalty for women and a wage premium for men (Waite & Denier, 2015, pg. 567) Recent studies find that marriage does provide a wage premium for childless women (Waite & Denier, 2015, pg. 566) Men = increase work intensity (esp. wives' employment interrupted) Women = loss labour market productivity, more domestic duties 2. TOPIC: Women outlive men "Over nearly a century in Canada, life expectancy at birth increased by 25.5 years for females, growing from 58.2 in 1921 to 83.7 years in 2011, and by 23.5 years for males, growing from 56.0 to 79.5 years" (Bourdeau & Ouellette, 2016, pg. 53) "According to data for the year 2011, Canadian women aged 65 could expect to live to age 86.8 and their male counter parts to age 83.9" (Bourdeau & Ouellette, 2016, pg. 53)
"trends in male mortality from cardiovascular diseases (heart diseases) and malignant neoplasms (lung and other types of cancers closely related to smoking) (Bourdeau & Ouellette, 2016, pg. 54) Narrowing of the gap (mortality) since 1978 - females progressively adopting social behaviour more similarly to males (employment, smoking, alcohol consumption) (Bourdeau & Ouellette, 2016, pg. 54) Males have become increasingly aware of the importance of managing their health (more frequent doctor visits, routine health check-ups from an earlier age), something that females had understood much earlier. (Bourdeau & Ouellette, 2016, pg. 54) According to Statistics Canada, life expectancy at birth could reach 87.6 years among males and 89.2 years among females in 2063 EDUCATION in demography 1. TOPIC: The relationship between education and a greater life expectancy "People with higher levels of education or a higher income have longer life expectancies and are expected to spend a greater portion of those years in good health compared with those with less education or with a lower income" (Bushnik et al, 2020, pg. 7) Engage in better habits for a healthier lifestyle o Men and women with less than a secondary graduate level education could expect to spend 81% and 79% of their remaining years in good health, compared with 89% and 87% for those who have a university degree or equivalent (Bushnik et al, 2020, pg. 6)
2. TOPIC: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EDUCATION IN INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES AND MORTALITY Education is less accessible in Indigenous communities for several reasons: "lack of academic preparation and guidance, inadequate financial resources, lack of relevant or Indigenous- specific curricula, and the loss of community, family and cultural support systems often due to the need to relocate far from their homes" (Arriagada, 2021, pg. 6) Like the Inuit Nunangat reserve, "where access to education is much more limited and many have to leave their communities to attend educational institutions" (Arriagada, 2021, pg. 3) If we look at Figure 1 on Statistics Canada Catalogue 82-003-X (2021) which demonstrates mortality differentials for Indigenous individuals o The most significant causes of mortality are chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (5.9), diabetes mellitus (4.8), intentional self-harm (also referred to as suicide) (4.1), and unintentional injuries (3.8). CULTURAL INFLUENCES on demographic outcomes 1. TOPIC: diffusion of new ideas and new norms about fertility, the family size and contraception decreasing fertility rates. "while births to older mothers approaching age 40 were more common in the past, more women now become mothers for the first time at higher reproductive ages. This reduces their chances of having more than one or two children and may lead to involuntary childlessness" (Lebano and Jamieson, 2020, pg. 122) NEW NORM : o "mean age at first birth is over 30 in several European countries" (Lebano and Jamieson, 2020, pg. 122) o "this shift can be regarded as one of the defining traits of the changes in family and relationships known as the "second demographic transition" (Lebano and Jamieson, 2020, pg. 122) o The age of leaving the parental home is very high in comparison to Northern Europe countries in both countries, with the proportion of young adults living with parents at ages 18-34 highest in Italy (Lebano and Jamieson, 2020, pg. 126) o Link between delayed adulthood and postponement of children was sometimes made explicity in interviews ("we cannot be adults" or "we do not want to be adults") (Lebano and Jamieson, 2020, pg. 123) VALUE:
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