Sociology Final Exam Study Guide The definition of sociology:The study of human groups and societies, giving particular emphasis to analysis of the industrialized world **the scientific study of society **A scientific perspective that focuses on people's social experiences and social surroundings as the key to our behavior. why sociology matters:Because it finds out what is really going on Sociological imagination:The application of imaginative though to the asking and answering of sociological questions. Someone using the sociological imagination "thinks himself away" from the familiar routines of daily life. Debunking:Looking behind the facades of everyday life. Symbols:One item used to stand for or represent another - as in the case of a flag, which symbolizes a nation. Anything that conveys a shared meaning. Culture:The values, norms, and material goods characteristic of a given group. The notion of culture is widely used in sociology and the other social sciences. Culture is one of the most distinctive properties of human social association. Norms:Rules of conduct that specify appropriate behavior in a given range of social situations. A norm either prescribes a given type of behavior or forbids it. All human groups follow norms which are always backed up by sanctions of one kind or another - varying from informal disapproval to physical punishment. Values:Ideas held by individuals or groups about what is desirable, proper, good, and bad. What individuals value is strongly influenced by the specific culture in which they happen to live. Beliefs:Statements accepted as true and are known as "facts" by those who accept them. May be correct or incorrect. cultural diffusion:The spread of some aspect of culture from one group to another (main source of social change in the world today). total institutions:A place where people are isolated 24/7 from the rest of society and controlled by an administrative staff. No privacy, little independence, and few individual decisions. self-image:Who WE think we are which is acquired at an early age and can change over time. It is based on how we think other people view us. self-verification:We want our self-image verified and reinforced bogus science:Supposedly "scientific" claims with no valid scientific evidence, "FAKE SCIENCE". Sometimes it is not a mistake or flawed research, sometimes it's not really research at all.
warning signs of bogus science: 1.BS pitches claims directly to the public first 2.BS claims some group or organization is out to suppress their amazing discovery 3."Anecdotal Evidence" (testimonies) 4.BS claims a belief must be true because a lot of people believe it and/ or because the belief has been around for a long time 5.BS never does the conclusive research that would prove them right 6.BS claims goes against what scientists already know to be true 7.BS is personally trying to sell something to you (w/ or w/out a celebrity spokesperson) anecdotal evidence:Testimonies instead of real research evidence confusing correlation with causation:When researchers find a correlation and they (or we) assume that there is a causal relationship (and assume we know what that causal relationship is). sampling error:A sample (the individual people in the study) is NOT representative of the population. The sample must be representative of the population, they must be just like the population, only a smaller sample. achieving upward social mobility:Education, entrepreneurship, marriage obstacles to upward mobility:Structural (economic climate, cost of higher education, availability of financial aid, credentialism, etc.), Social (resistance from above, resistance from those around us ["selling out"]), Personal (holding ourselves down: attitude, self-image and "selling out", habitus, cultural capital) feminization of poverty:An increase in the proportion of the poor who are female SES:Socio-Economic Status, measure of social class standing (wealth, education, income, and occupational prestige) cultural capital:Noneconomic or cultural resources that parents pass down to their children, such as language or knowledge. These resources contribute to the process of social reproduction, according to Bourdieu.