College of Criminology Research Journal, Vol. 6, 2015 1 Vol. 6, 2014 ISSN: 2094-7631Status of Closed Circuit Television Camera Usage in Batangas City: Basis for Enhancement Dennes M. Manalo, Kim Alvin Mapoy, Kim Joem K. Villano, Kenneth Angelo D. Reyes, Merwina Lou A. Bautista College of Criminal Justice, Lyceum of the Philippines University, Batangas City, Philippines Abstract-The study aimed to determine the problems encountered in using closed circuit television cameras in Batangas City, Philippines. More specifically, it sought to identify the percentage of CCTV camera usage in the same locality among commercial establishments, residential areas and streets; to assess the impact of CCTV usage, and to determine the problems encountered in its installation. The study utilized 52 police officers,20commercialestablishmentownersand19 residents/homeowners as respondents and used descriptive research method. Results showed that the common impact of installation of CCTV is improving general security and safety around properties. It also showed that CCTV camera deters crime and reduces anxiety by creating an image of a safe environment to the residents. It can also be viewed through the results that the respondents agreed that the most common problem encountered in the installation of CCTV cameras was the absence of personnel to do the monitoring and at the same time, they agreed that there occur chances of strategic positioning of the CCTV cameras which affect mainly its performance. Keywords:Closed circuit television camera Usage, Problems Encountered INTRODUCTION Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) is a surveillance technology which are used to monitor and record images of what takes place in a specific location in real time (National Community Crime Prevention Program). More specifically, it is a "system in which a number of video cameras are connected in a
College of Criminology Research Journal, Vol. 6, 2015 2 Vol. 6, 2014 ISSN: 2094-7631closed circuit or loop, with the images produced being sent to a central television monitor or recorded." The term closed circuit television was originally used to differentiate between public television broadcasts and private camera-monitor networks. These days CCTV is used as a generic term for a variety of video surveillance technologies (Ratchliffe, 2012). Forover20years,businesses,individualsand commercial and residential associations have embraced video surveillance technology as a means to protect residential privacy and property against intrusion and other forms of crime (Marcus, 2010). CCTV is an environmental crime prevention tool where possible effects include the function that may work to deter people from committing crime in the area. It might also signify to the public that an area with CCTV is a safe place and the increase use of the space means that crime is likely to happen as there are more potential witnesses. People also believe that the presence of CCTV may act as a prompt to remind people to take other security measures as locking their car (Welsh & Farrington, 2010; Gill & Spriggs, 2005). Research suggests that the CCTV is most successful in reducing or solving crime when there is an active police interest in providing surveillance information to inform the setting up of CCTV, being involved in monitoring the CCTV and using the evidence it can provide (Welsh & Farrington, 2010). The use of CCTV cameras in the Philippines have helped in capturing thieves, violators, employees, and even suspects for killings. However, not all video footages caught by CCTV are helpful toall in solving crimes. "If they only capture the tops of people's heads they are less than useless," one comment from Gloria Laycock, a criminologists and director of Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science at University College of London (UPLB Information Technology Center, 2012). The late Interior and Local Government Secretary Jesse Robredo urged all local chief executives to install closed circuit television technology (CCTV) cameras in their localities to help deter and solve crimes. He said the installation of CCTV cameras will support the peace and order initiatives of local governments,
College of Criminology Research Journal, Vol. 6, 2015 3 Vol. 6, 2014 ISSN: 2094-7631particularly cities and municipalities with high demographic concentration and robust economic activities. "As local authorities are mandated under the Local Government Code to ensure peace and order as well as public safety in their localities, they should employ strategies and means to keep their communities crime-free and ward-off would-be criminals," he said. Robredo said in his directive during his term as Naga City Mayor that the local governments decide to make use of a CCTV system should ensure that such surveillance equipment should be installed in strategic places and at heights free from human intervention. "It has to be manned 24/7 by at least five trained local government personnel," he said. A number of LGUs have already passed ordinances requiring businessmen to install CCTV equipment. Among them are the cities of Iloilo, Pasig, Mandaue, Muntinlupa, Iligan and Quezon (Department of Interior and Local Government). In community consultations exploring situational crimes prevention alternatives, CCTV is often suggested as a solution that would make them feel safer (Crime Prevention Victoria, 2011). CCTV is often spoken of as if it is a panacea that will immediately reduce crime and cure fear of crime. However, the evidence for CCTV as a solution for fear of crime and as a crime reduction tool is conflicting and still open for debate (Sherman et al., 2009). Although it gives big help to the police works, it has its own disadvantage. Criminals may use surveillance cameras to monitor the public. For example, a hidden camera at an ATM can capturepeople's PINs astheyareentered,withouttheir knowledge. The devices are small enough not to be noticed, and are placed where they can monitor the keypad of the machine as people enter their PINs. Images may be transmitted wirelessly to the criminal (MacCahill & Norris, 2010). The researchers choose to conduct the study about CCTV cameras due to the increasing number of crimes that were solved through the use of CCTV footages. This study could be used as a basis for the improvement of the future generation technology.