Unit 4 Psychology

University Of Georgia **We aren't endorsed by this school
Feb 19, 2023
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Exam 4 Pysch notes Lifespan development Prenatal development Stage between conception and birth Germinal Stage Starts at conception ends at implantation; approximately first 2 weeks Zygote: single celled fertilized egg Blatsocyst - Bundle of cells Travels down the filopian tubes and begins to implant into the uterine wall - end of cycle Est of failed implantation: 20-50% 3 crucial support structures form after implantation Amniotic sac - filled with amniotic fluid - protects the embryo from environmental shock and temp changes - regulates exchanges of fluids Placenta - passes oxygen and nutrients from parent to embryo/fetus gets rid of waste Umbilical cord - tube with blood vessels that carry blood between embyro/fetus and placenta Placental barrier is semi-permeable Tertatogens - agents that can cause harm to prenatal organism Fetal alcohol syndrome phsyical and cognitive symptoms in children of parent who drank heavily during pregnancy Embryonic Stage 3rd to 8th week Called an embryo as it begins to develop the basic human structures - major organ systems begin to form Sexual differentiation begins Fetal stage From 2nd month until birth Called a fetus Very rapid growth Random and spasms at the start Maturing of organ systems Digestive system functioning Last organ to mature are the lungs Development of senses - least developed vision Taste, hearing, touch at the end of pregnancy
Brain development begins with the last 3 months of pregnancy - begin to have more organized sleeping schedule, memories can be formed Infant and Child development Physical development Born with a set of reflexes: automatic, involuntary, unlearned response to stimuli Breathing automatic from birth Rooting reflex, sucking reflex, and swallowing reflex Developmental norms: median age at which people display behaviors or abilities A lot of variation of when or how people develop Genes and environment affect timing/speed of motor development If muscles and cns aren't developed enough, training will not do anything to teach a child Physical development rapid over the first 5 years, then slow and steady until puberty Cognitive development Transitions in childrens patterns of thinking Infants born with some abilities and develop basic understanding of the world very rapidly LAnguage development very fast Understand some phrases by 12 months 150-200 words by 2 years Speak sentences by 3 Average 5 year old knows 5000-6000 words Understand context and slang improves General theme - increase and improve Social and personality development Influenced by nature and nurture Influenced by our genetic makeup and our environment Temperament: a persons innate characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity - building blocks of personality Easy baby - generally happy, social, do not give a lot of trouble Slow to warm up - reactive, easily scared, emotional, will come around eventually Difficult - incredibly emotionally reactive , frustration and anger, hate change of routine, hard to put on a schedule, cry a lot Attachment: emotional bond between people First attachment to primary caregiver at 6-7 months - developing because of the interactions b/t caregiver and child - how parents respond will
determine the relationship's health Basic trust created - sense that world is predictable and trustworthy place if caregiver does take proper care of child - infants get attached through feeding and contact comfort Contact comfort overtake all over variables in first attachment - sense of security established Quality of attachment Secure: - strong healthy bond - baby had emotional bond that makes them feel secure Most infants Anxious/ambivalent Anxious/does not trust their caregiver, want comfort but scared to reachout lack of security Avoidant Bond appears to be lacking, dont even try to be around the caregiver Quality of attachment can have long lasting effects on how we form relationships later in life Adolescence Transition between childhood to adulthood Puberty until independence Used to be end at 18 but now defined as independent from parents Puberty: sexual maturation Girls 10-15 Boys 11-16 Primary sex characteristics: structure that make reproduction possible Girls: menarche: first menstrual cycle Avergage in US age 12 Boys - Semenarche: first ejaculation Average in US is 13 Secondary sex characterisitcs: sexual differences that have no essential reproductive function Hair, fat, muscle growth, change of our bodies that make us look more adult Physcial development Rapid increase in height coincides with puberty Brain development - neurons gain myelin sheath which improves transmission and allows brain to operate quicker Brain prunes unused neurons and connections - gets rid of ununused neurons to improve efficiency Amygdala - matures early(dealing with emotion), prefrontal cortex matures late (cognition, impulse control, planning) does not fully develop until you
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