Stages of play -Solo play: also known as independent play is the first stage of play observed in infants. Children play alone as they have yet to develop the social skills to play with others or prefer to play alone. Solitary play gives the child time to think, create and explore their environment, toys and objects is around them. -Parallel play: children play side by side but not playing with each other. Parallel play occurs between the age of 2-3 years and is an important part of socialisation. During this stage children share the same interest in toys and this common theme results in parallel play. -Operative play: a child plays with others; showing an interest in the activity and the other children they are paying with. It takes place between the ages of 4-5 as the child acquires the social skills to interact with others. Importance of friendship and friendship groups: -Social benefits of friendship: increase the sense of belonging and purpose. Boost an individual's happiness and reduce their stress. Improve their self-confidence and self-worth. Helps cope with traumas such as divorce, serious illness, job loss or death of a loved one. -Effects of peer pressure on social development: positive peer pressure can help teens develop the coping skills necessary for adulthood. It might encourage teens to become more active in athletics or to avoid risky behavior Nature vs nurture -Naturerefers to genetic inheritance and other biological factors, whereasnurturerefers to external influences on development such as the environment you grow up in or social influences. -Certain physical factors are biologically determined by genetic inheritance, for example eye colour. Other physical characteristics appear to be strongly influenced by genetic makeup of the birth parents such as height. -However, there is a debate as to whether psychological characteristics such as behavioral tendencies and mental abilities are also 'wired in' before a child is born or whether they are influenced by the environment. -Bowley'stheory of attachment is a biological perspective of development (nature) as it explains the bond between mother and child as being an innate process. -Chomsky'sproposal that language is developed through the use of an innate language acquisition device also comes from a biological perspective. -In contrast,Bandurassocial learning theory is based on an understanding that the environment influences development (nurture) and that children learn through imitation and role modelling. -Characteristics and differences not observed at birth but which emerge later in life are referred to as maturation.
-The 'nature' perspective is based on an assumption that all individuals have an inner 'biological clock' that determines when and at what rate physical development will progress. Development as a result of genetic or inherited factors Gesell's maturation theory -Gesell was interested in children's biological maturation. He based his theory on his belief that: development is genetically determined from birth- a biological process, children follow the same orderly sequence in their development and the pace of development may vary depending on physical and intellectual development. -He was the first person to use observation of children to understand their development. Gessell observed the behaviors of many children, from which he determined averages or 'norms' which he called milestones of development. His milestones describe children's physical, social and emotional development. -"The child's personality is a product of gradual growth. Their nervous system matures by stages and natural sequences" -Positives of his theory: -He determined typical norms of development that are still used today -He used advanced methodology in observations of behavior of large numbers of children -Negatives of his theory: -He did not consider the influence of individuals or cultural differences in children -He believed that the norms of development he described were desirable Bandura's social learning theory -Social learning theory is based on a belief that learning happens through observing, imitating and modelling the behaviors of others. Principles of social learning: 1.Attention: leaning takes place when a child focuses their attention on a person who 'models' the behaviour. Children are more likely to imitate the behaviour of someone they identify with or admire. 2.Retention: what the child has observed is retained in their memory to be used when an opportunity occurs. 3.Reproduction: what has been learned is reproduced or imitated. It may be rehearsed in the child's mind first then imitated later when there is an opportunity. 4.Motivation: children feel motivated because they anticipate intrinsic or extrinsic rewards. Children will eb motivated to repeat or stop the behaviour depending on intrinsic or extrinsic reinforcement. Reinforcement
-Behaviour may be repeated or resisted- this is reinforcement and it may be positive or negative -Positive reinforcement: the behaviour is repeated because of persona; satisfaction or rewards -Negative reinforcement: the behaviour is not repeated to avoid an adverse experience such as lack of satisfaction or being told off -Vicarious reinforcement: children may be motivated because they see that the person or 'model' they observe is getting satisfaction or positive feedback -Children may resist imitating the action because the model receives negative feedback from their action Stress-diathesis model -The stress diathesis psychological model helps us to explain how stress is caused by life events (nurture) can be interact with an individual's generics wellbeing. -According to this theory some individuals are born with certain biological or genetic predispositions to mental illness referred to as diathesis. -A person who has a genetic predisposition to a psychological disorder might never develop the disorder if they do not experience stress in their life. -High levels of stress such as family conflicts, abuse, trauma or problems at school could trigger the onset for those with a predisposition.