GLOBAL GOVERNANCE Global Governance - "the way in which global affairs are managed." - An international process of consensus-forming which generates guidelines and agreements that affect national governments and international corporations. - Ex. WHO policies on health issues - Product of neo-liberal paradigm shifts in international political and economic relations. - Movement towards political integration of transnational actors aimed at negotiating responses to problems that affect more than one state or region. Ex. United Nations, International Criminal Court, and the World Bank. Global Governance - Sum of law, norms, policies, and institutions that define, constitute, and mediate trans- border relations between states, cultures, citizens, intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations, and the market. - Solves challenges that go beyond the capacity of a SINGLE STATE to solve. - Sum of governance processes operating in the absence of world government. International Organizations and the United Nations affirm contemporary global governance. United Nation - Intergovernmental organization that is tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order. - Largest, most familiar, most internationally presented, and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. - Takes care of the underprivileged and marginalized sectors of the society. - In policy motivation, peacekeeping is the most important feature of UN activity in peace and security. Four Main Purposes of the UN Charter 1. Maintaining worldwide peace and security 2. Developing relations among nations 3. Fostering cooperation between nations in order to solve economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian international problems 4. Providing a forum for bringing countries together to meet the UN's purposes and goals. Gaps within the Global Governance System according to World Health Organization (2015) Jurisdictional Gap - Pertains to the increasing need for global governance in many areas (ex. Health) and the lack of an authority with the power, or jurisdiction, to take action.
Incentive Gap - The need for international cooperation and the motivation to undertake it. This is now done by globalization. Participation Gap - Refers to the fact that international cooperation remains primarily the affair of governments, leaving civil society groups on the fringes of policy-making. Only countries are given the spotlight, but in this participation gap, private entities are given an equal avenue to participate. Five Gaps in Global Governance according to Thakur and Weiss (2015) 1. Knowledge Gaps - The first step of problem-solving is recognizing the existence of the problem, its nature. 2. Normative Gaps - After identifying the problem, you can now establish norms, rules, policies, to address the problem. 3. Policy Gaps - Related to the specific policies that one can implement in order to address the stated problem. 4. Institutional Gaps - Are the challenges in implementing any policies that are put forth by the international community. 5. Compliance Gaps - Includes effective implementation, as well as enforcement.
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