Fricker, Epistemic Injustice (2007), Chapter 4

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PHIL 336
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Philosophy
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Oct 8, 2023
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13
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4 The Virtu€ of Testimonial Justic 4.1 CORRECTING FOR PREJUDICE crediblein whatheiste historical human society, prejudice in the collective ongoing training of testimonial sensi prejudices in the discursive environment, there is a risk of testim injustice of our central sort (identity-prejudicial credibility defici). raises the question whether we can identify a particular virtue that the hearer needs to have in order to counteract the risk of letting suct prejudice distort his perceptions of speakers. We need to ask abour i specifically ansi-nreiudics | pecifically anti-prejudicial current that the virtuous hear s 0es her l n Qrde G ' I'to m . sreenleaf wag [acl Ove on to the question of what Cpistemic vir kin, - g and whar exactly Greenleaf's mor 1 s Crican | S and we ' . - ndu}s)malista is vis?[r-e in Venice. Herbert Greenleah @ "':c s hired Ing, acc . c et S » accompanied by a priva' g Ip solve the mystery Ofythepwherea 0 1 Anthy (Longoy VA Mingh : ell cthuen, 20?))0?;';\4?"["1:;4 Mr Ripl, . '{/)3"\""(' ug}\;cruci'ally"'oghella's sc,elepngl:?wcejd on Parricia H,g/;,::,i,c A H'f:d ith Diee (r; Preseng Purposgs 'S[h o'fy based foI's]A e Chers reenleaf ape deve]:)P 2 d_g_f'rlae& o ed differendy.
The Virtue of Testimonigl Justice 87 . rencgade son, Dickie. Dickie Greenleaf recently gor en i :il,]friendx Marge Sbefweod',bfll subs.equcntly spen}r, fgreat%iaeieli;cr)ir}:; B velling with their .frljend 1f)m Ripley —until Dickie mysterious| disappeared. Marge is increasingly distrustful of Ripley because h); «ems to be obsessed with Dickie and suspiciously bound up wich his strange disappearance. She also knows very well that it ispunlike Dickie—unreliable philanderer though he un ! doubredly was—simply 10 do a bunk, let alone to commit suicide, which is the hypothesis that Ripley is at pains to encourage. Ripley, however, has all along done a successful job of sucking up to Greenleaf senior, so Marge is entirely alone in her suspicion—her correct suspicion— that Dickie has been murdered, and that Ripley is his killer. Herbert Greenleaf has just asked Ripley to be as helpful as he can in filling in the blanks' of Dickic's life to MacCarron, the private detective, and Ripley responds: Ripley: Il try my best, sir. Obviously I'll do anything to help Dickie. Marge looks at him in contempt. Herbert Greenleaf: This theory, the letter he left for you, the police think that's a clear indication he was planning on doing somcthing ... to himself. Marge: T just don't believe that! Herbert Greenleaf: You don't want to, dear. I'd like to ralk to Tom alone—perhaps this afternoon? Would you mind? Marge, what a man may say to his sweetheart and what he'll admit to another fellow— Marge: Such as?? Here Marge is being gently, kindly, sidc?]ined by Greenl'eafs.emor, who pathologizes her conviction that Dickie would not kill himself as a sweetheart's wishful thinking. He also assumes, wrongly at least w0 some extent, that Marge is innocent of the more tawdry facts of chkxecs1 life, so that his primary attitude towards her on the one h;"md an the-truth-about-Dickie on the mhr:r' is that she needs protection tron} it. (Ripley exploits and reinforces this. },atcr that dfx[\)]/, w{\;n Gr;enle'f and Ripley are alone, Green']caf gloomily rcflects': o, .argeh oesln t know the half of it." And Ripley responds: '1 think it might hurt her 1o know'.3 ) Greenleaf's everyday tlwol:y about what a man may say to his sweetheart etc.—though quite posstll)ly true enough has the effect of undermining Marge as a possessor f't knowAl.cdgc about the lovgr she had been living with for some time. Greenleal'is only too aware of how 2 bid. 120 1. *bid. 121, e A o
e Virtue f e timon f.l/'/mm*f 88 The V | e he hims WS s son—" e ically ttle h b i of his son pa ) : i mselt knows v i t . . e private ¢ e at the prospect char the ¥ s 1o see Marge a8 the source of knowledge nce—an > enthusiastic as he is 4 vet he fai ; N O ;v IS, . Lo that she m.\l\thl'} s, . o about Dickie (h']'\ % Greenleat © jgnore one of Marge's key reasons This auiude 0 is that Dickie has died at the hands of Ripley: ) one of which had been 4 " correct i § for her correct 1LE, . Rlplf}' s place, 4d sworn never {0 remove. Greenleaf s Dickie's commitment 1o e to Marge on Dickie's part is vircually wort Ripley succ:essmlly constructs Marge as 'hysterical' [ndeed, not only Gre_enleaf but also Marge's fiien}l Peter Smich-Kingsley: comes roApercelve h'er that way, so that ; gainst Marge's word being taken the net result is 2 collusion of men rge's ' The theme of knowledge ever the fore in the dialogue, we her off-screen, shortly after she finds the rings, her n seemingly reduced to a self-contradictory mantr, repeating emphatically to the incredulous Greenleaf, 'T don't know, 1 don't know, I just know it's and it is ar this point that Greenleaf replies with the familiar put-down, 'Marge, there's female intuition, and then there are facs—." A number of these sorts of exchange build up to the scene in which Marge, being taken back to America, is being ushered on to a boar but breaks away to lunge at Ripley, exclaiming, 'I know it was you—1 know it was you, Tom. | know it was you. I know you killed Dickie. I know it was you." MacCarron, the private detective, comes out of the waiting boat physically to restrain g;;a?f;:n thzust;ge Sifection r.eads: 'Ripley looks at him as if o say: by you do, she's hysterical. MacCarron nods, pulls her onto the @ :-!}f;: t:: see poor Marge in some measure actually becoming W! el e constructed as a hysterical female, apparently expressng others' reasonr:l,l;:j:btlr:iiclizm' sticking to imu:nions in the face ';r mechanism of causal const Pagrpon her emotions. Thus [k}e'Sll"s". how such causal o ruction. Perversely, we carch 2 whift here @ justification for [homtr'u?[mn might seem to supply an cleventh-hott is the power thag Szn':flgmz}l prejudiced credibility judgemelfl/"'";,' wrongful credibilipy : ZPWJUdKeS have for self-fulfilment. Greenle! ¢ ¥ Judgement of Marge cannor itself be recrospect™ ignord gift from her an ignores it partly becaus Marge, s0 that in his eyes y hless; but mostly because seriously. at one point hear powers of expressio vhat ng wha o Minghella, The Tuensed My Ripley, 135.
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