1)The article starts right off with definitions of words and/or concepts, which is the primary indication of essentialism. For example, the author gives us the definition of the concept of species, "The word derives from the Latinspecere,'to look at' or 'to behold'". The author also takes the time to explain/describe where the notion of "biological species" comes from. 2)Some examples of operationism that are present in this article are when the author goes into detail describing how taxonomists can determine separate species by their genitalia. Another example is when the author is describing DNA bar coding and how this can be used to detect separate species. These examples are ones of operationism because the definitions and examples are more specific and can be tested using scientific measuring instruments. 3)There is a substantial amount of both philosophy and science in this article. Most of the philosophical body of this piece resides in the beginning where the author is speaking from essentialism. The author also seems to use a mix of philosophy and science when trying to find the best scientific tool to define what different species are. The scientific value of this article lies in the descriptions of specific scientific tools that are used to separate species.
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