Alzheimer 1

Victoria University **We aren't endorsed by this school
Jul 20, 2023
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Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for approximately two-thirds of cases. It is a progressive degenerative disease that attacks the brain, causing gradual increases in cognitive (memory and thinking) problems. In Alzheimer's disease, physical damage to the brain is caused by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Plaques (fibrous patches) form when a protein called beta-amyloid forms abnormal clumps. Tangles are twisted chains of proteins called tau. Most cases of Alzheimer's disease are not caused by known changes in specific genes. This type is called sporadic Alzheimer's disease and occurs most often in people over the age of 65. Familial Alzheimer's disease is a rare inherited form that often presents symptoms between the ages of 40 and 60. In familial Alzheimer's disease, genetic alterations in three specific genes lead to increased production of proteins present in amyloid plaques. Nearly everyone with Down syndrome develops Alzheimer's disease, but at a younger age than those without Down syndrome. People with Down syndrome produce more protein, which forms amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease. This is because they have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which contains the gene that makes the amyloid protein. vascular dementia Vascular dementia is a broad term for dementias associated with diseases of the blood vessels of the brain. This vascular disease affects blood flow to the brain, causing damage. Vascular dementia may resemble Alzheimer's disease. Some people may develop a mixture of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia and comes in many forms. Strategic infarct dementia A single large stroke can cause strategic infarct dementia, depending on the size and location of the stroke. A large stroke can lead to sudden onset of behavioral or thought symptoms. The type of symptoms depends on the area of the brain damaged by the stroke. Dementia symptoms may stabilize or improve over time if no more strokes have occurred. If you have another problem with the blood vessels in your brain, or if you have had another stroke, your dementia symptoms may get worse. Multi-infarct dementia This type of vascular dementia is caused by a series of small strokes called mini-strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIA). It is caused by disease of the large blood vessels in the brain. Strokes are often "silent," meaning people are not aware they are having a minor stroke. The more frequent strokes, the greater the damage to the brain, affecting the ability to think and think. Depression and mood swings may occur, but symptoms depend on the location of the stroke.
Multi-infarct dementia progresses gradually, worsening after another stroke and then stabilizing for some time. subcortical vascular dementia This form of vascular dementia, also called Binswanger disease, is caused by damage to the small deep brain blood vessels that damage subcortical (deep) areas of the brain. Subcortical vascular dementia may be associated with untreated hypertension or diabetes leading to vascular disease. It is caused by high blood pressure, thickened arteries, and poor blood flow. Symptoms often include poor reasoning, mild memory problems, problems walking or moving, behavioral changes, and lack of bladder control. Subcortical vascular dementia is usually progressive, with individual differences in ability, but symptoms worsen over time as vascular damage progresses.
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