HA (eyes)

University of Virginia **We aren't endorsed by this school
Jun 26, 2023
Uploaded by KidTitanium10469 on coursehero.com
EYES - delicate sensory organs equipped with many extra- oculars and inraocular structures, some structures are easily visible, whereas others can only be viewed with special instrument- OPTHALMOSCOPE EXTRAOCULAR STRUCTURES: - the bony orbits protects the eyes from trauma. - the eyelids, lashes, lacrimal gland, punctum, canaliculi and sac protect the eyes from injury, dust and foreign bodies. INTRAOCULAR STRUCTURES: - directly involved in vision the eye has 3 layers of tissue OUTERMOST - cornea, sclera which maintains the form and size of the eyeball. MIDDLE - choroid, ciliary body and iris. pupil size is controlled by involuntary muscles in this region. INNERMOST - retina, which receives visual stimuli and sends them to the brain ASSESSMENT : SNELLEN CHARTS - snellen alphabet chart and snellen e chart are both used to test distance vision and measure visual activity SNELLEN E CHART - is used for younger children and adults who can't read recording results: visual acuity is recorded as a fraction the top number is the distance between the patient and the chart. the bottom number is the distance from which a person with normal vision could read the line the larger the bottom number, the poorer the patient's vision - 20/20 normal vision in adults and children age 6-7 - 20/30 -age 5 - 2-40 - age 4 - 20-50 - age 3 and younger INSPECTING THE EYES: - with the scalp line as the startig point, determine whether the areas are in a normal position, - they should be about 1/3 of the way down the face and about
one eye's width apart from each other. then assess the eyelids, cornea, conjuctiva, sclerae, irises and pupils EYELIDS - each upper eyelid should cover the top quarter of the iris so the eyes look alike look for redness and edema, inflammation or lesion on the lids CORNEA - should be clear andwithout lesions and should appear even. IRISES - should appear flat and should be the same size, color and shape CONJUCTIVE & SCLERAE - should be clear an shinny.sclera should be white PUPILS - should be equal in size, round ¼ of the iris in normal room light. CARDINAL POSITION OF GAZE -evaluate the oculomotor, trigeminal and abducens, cranial nerves and the extraocular muscle r superior l superior r lateral l lateral r inferior l inferior note: abnormal findings on the eyes NYSTAGMUS -involuntary rolling of eyeballs AMBLYOPIA - failure of one eye to follow an object eye abnormalities CONJUNCTIVITIS
- hyperemia of the conjunctiva with predominate redness in eye periphery, it usually begins in 1 eye rapidly spreads by contamination with other eye.vision is not alected except for some blurring because of water or eye discharge ACUTE ANGLE CLOSURE GLAUCOMA - characterized by rapid onset of unilateral inflammation, severe eye pain & pressure & photophobia. PERI-ORBITAL EDEMA - swelling around the eyes or periorbital edema, may result from allergies, local inflammation, fluid retaining disorder or crying. PTOSIS - drooping upper eyelid caused by muscle weakness or damage to the occulomotor nerve. CATARACT - common cause of vision loss, opacity of the lens ox lens capsule of the eyes that developa gradually STRABISMUS OR TROPLA - constant mal-alignment of the eye axis
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