School

Drew University **We aren't endorsed by this school

Course

MATH 227

Subject

Mathematics

Date

Nov 13, 2023

Type

Other

Pages

3

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Math 227
Name(s):____________________________________________________
Article Questions
Answer the following questions about the article Aman, M.G. et. al.
(2008).
Cognitive effects
of Risperidone in children with autism and irritable behavior.
Journal of Child and Adolescent
Psychopharmacology 18(3), 227 - 236.
1.
What is the population to which the authors generalize their results?
The population to which the authors generalize their results from was children and
adolescents with mental ages greater than 18 months who had autism and severe
behavioral disturbance.
2.
What is the sampling frame?
The sampling frame was 38 people who had scorable cognitive measures at a baseline and at
least had one visit out of the 101 study participants found.
3.
What are three things about how the sample was selected from the sampling frame that
could be improved in order to better generalize from the sample to the population?
Can be improved in the variety of the severity of their autism, not using all children that
have sever behavioral disturbances, and probably changing mental age to not start at 18
months but around 48 months and greater.
4.
Give an example of a variable that was omitted from the study but might have been
worthwhile to include.
An example of a variable that was omitted from the study that might have been worthwhile to
include was children with past medical history of neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
5.
How many ANOVA's were performed in this study?
What type of ANOVA was
performed?
What were the factors and how many levels did they have?
How could they
have done all of these ANOVA's as a single analysis?

There was two ANOVAS performed in this study. They completed a repeated measures
ANOVA.
The factors were cognitive data was analyzed by function of drugs, placebo vs
risperidone, which had two levels and by time which had 3 levels, within participants.
6.
Looking at the statistics provided in Table 1 for the variable AGE, can you tell what the
shape of the distribution is (negatively skewed, roughly symmetric, or positively
skewed)?
Explain.
The shape of the distribution was positively skewed because the testable participants had
a higher mean average of 9.0 versus the mean of the untestable participants at 7.0.
7.
On page 230, in the section on "Cognitive measures," the authors report that the partial
eta squared for the interaction between time and drug for the Cancellation Task is .16.
Interpret that value.
According to the value of partial eta squared np^2 =.16, approximately the Risperidone resulted
in a large effect om more correct detections than placebo on the Cancellation Task
8.
Although the authors state in the "Study Participants" section on page 229 that the sample
size is 38, in two places the inferred sample sizes are different from 38.
On page 230, in
the section on "Cognitive measures", the authors report the results for the interaction
between time and drug for the Cancellation Task as
F
(1, 17) = 3.18,
p
= .05.
On page
232 in Table 2 the sample sizes are given in the footnotes.
What is the sample size
according to these two analyses?
Explain.
The sample size is 34 because not everyone was able to complete cognitive testing.
9.
On page 230, in the section on "Cognitive measures", the authors mention that they will
study the drug effects by looking at the interaction between time and drug.
In fact, they
hope for an interaction between the two.
Why is that?
In other words, why not just
report the main effect of drug?

There hoping for interaction in order understand the drug and time to figure out if it has
correlation to schizophrenia treatment in adults.
10. In the "Limitations" section on page 234, the authors wrote, "Had we corrected for
multiple comparisons, none of the comparisons would have exceeded alpha."
What did
they mean?
They mean that if they would have corrected, they would see any real comparison difference, and
probably would see any affects between the interactions shown. Probably would have resulted in
false positive answers if corrected, not true values shown.