Marketing Research Exam 2 100% revisions 2023

Marketing Research Exam 2 100% revisions 2023 What is a survey? What is a sample survey? - A way of describing public opinion by collecting primary data through communicating directly with individual sampling units. A sample survey is a more formal term for a survey emphasizing that respondents' opinions presumably represent a sample of the larger target population's opinion. What are the types of information gathered using surveys? What are advantages and disadvantages of using surveys? - Surveys gather information to assess consumer knowledge and awareness of products, brands, or issues and to measure consumer attitudes, feelings and behaviors. Certain aspects of surveys may be qualitative. Advantages: Quick, Inexpensive, Efficient, Accurate/Reliability, Flexible, Useful in describing large, populations, Standardized questions. Disadvantages: Artificial, Weak on validity, Can have errors, which cause misleading results. What are the two main ways researchers conduct survey interviews? - Interactive - allows spontaneous two-way interaction between the interview and the respondent. Non-interactive - Two-way communication by which respondents give answers to static questions that do not allow a dynamic dialog What are the advantages and disadvantages of conducting personal interviews for surveys? - Advantages: Opportunity for feedback Probing complex answers Length of interview Completeness of questionnaire Props and visual aids High participation rate. Disadvantages: Interviewer bias Lack of anonymity of respondent Cost. What are the advantages and disadvantages of giving our surveys via email? - Advantages: Speed Lower cost Faster turn around time More flexibility Less manual processing Candid responses.
Disadvantages: Possible lack of anonymity Spam filters Problems with successful delivery. What are some ways researchers can increase response rates? - It really depends on the survey approach, but they could: Include a cover letter, Provide incentives, Give advance notification, Keep survey sponsorship anonymous, Keying mail questionnaires with codes. What are some questions to ask when decided what survey approach to use? - Is the assistance of the interviewer necessary? Are respondents interested in the issues being investigated? Will cooperation be easily attained? How quickly is the information needed? Will the study require a long and complex questionnaire? How large is the budget? What are some ethical issues in survey research? - Participants' right to privacy, The use of deception, Respondents' rights to be informed about the purpose of the research, The need for confidentiality, The need for honesty in collecting data, The need for objectivity in collecting data. What is measurement? - Measurement is the process of describing some property of a phenomenon of interest usually by assigning numbers in a reliable and valid way. When numbers are used, the researcher must have a rule for assigning a number to an observation in a way that provides an accurate description. All measurement systems present the potential for error. What is a variable? What is a hypothesis? What is a constant? - A variable is any characteristic that can take two or more different values. A hypothesis is a statement about the expected relationship between at least two variables. (Product price is positively related to product quality). A constant is any characteristic that takes the same value for all cases. They do not vary across units in our data. We can break down variables into four categories. What are they? - Continuous - can take on a range of quantitative values. No minimum-sized unit of measurement. Good example is soda consumption. An individual could intake 750 ml, or 750.1, or 750.1159873, etc. There is not a set number of outcomes. Discrete - indicates membership in some group. There is no intermediate values between adjacent points, therefore there is a set number of possible outcomes. An example is number of children. You can have 2 or 3 children, but not 2.4 children. Another example is money. You can have $23.65, but not $23.6548. Dependent - a process outcome or a variable that is predicted and/or explained by other variables.
Independent - a variable that is expected to influence the dependent variable in some way. Talk about the nominal level of measurement - Nominal - Categories simply used for labeling observations. Order of variable values is irrelevant as one is not "higher" or "lower" than the other, just different. Examples: Hair color (brown, red, black, blonde). Political Party (Democrat, Republican, Libertarian, other). Wine preference (Merlot, Cabernet, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay). Nationality. College Major. Nominal has two requirements. It must be mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Nominal ranks qualities of units, not quantities. What does it mean to be mutually exclusive? What about exhaustive? - Mutually exclusive means that each case fits into no more than one category. Thus, you shouldn't be able to check multiple boxes in a mutually exclusive question. Exhaustive means that the variables has a category for every case. Thus, the question should cover each possible situation - for example, listing each year of school and graduate student as options, not just the undergrad years. Each of the three levels of measurement must be mutually exclusive and exhaustive! What are the three levels of measurement? Discuss how they relate to one another. - Nominal, ordinal, and interval. All three must be exhaustive and mutually exclusive. It is a one way staircase when comparing. When you have an interval/ratio variable, you can go down to an ordinal variable, and then down to a nominal variable. But you can NOT go up from nominal to ordinal or ordinal to interval/ratio. Talk about the ordinal level of measurement - Like nominal variables, ordinal must also be mutually exclusive and exhaustive. However, ordinal does have some inherent order, meaning that we can say one category is higher or lower than another. Examples include grades, health level, educational degrees. Talk about the interval level of measurement - Like nominal- and ordinal-level variables, must be exhaustive and mutually-exclusive. Like ordinal-level variables, the categories must also have inherent order. But, now we know the specific distance between categories. The distance between all pairs of adjacent categories are the same. Not just whether one category is higher or lower, but also by how much higher or lower it is. Ex: temperature, IQ scores. Further, we also have these Ratio variables which meet all the requirements of an interval measure and have a true 0 point. Examples include, height, age, and length of time.
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