Secondary data is the marketing and non-marketing data that has previously been collected, recorded, analyzed, interpreted, and summarized for purposes other than the purpose of the targeted marketing research or to meet information needs for other decisions or research, and these data can be either in the form of published data or not. Secondary data is fundamental from the first moment of thinking about marketing research. The researcher should not understand that naming secondary data means it is in a secondary position in terms of importance. But this label indicates its nature only in that it does not represent data that the researcher himself collected, analyzed, and interpreted, but data that represents the results of previous research operations or the results of previous decisions. (Bridges,2021) We can distinguish between the following types of secondary data: (Sallis et.al, 2021) Internal vs. External: Internal secondary data is what is available inside the company through its records and books, while external secondary data is available in reports, bulletins, periodicals, and specialized magazines outside the company and through other sources. Quantitative versus qualitative: There are quantitative secondary data that are expressed through numbers or quantitative indicators (sales volume, population, ...), and there are qualitative or non-quantitative secondary data that are expressed in a qualitative form related to the description ofsituation and the surrounding conditions. Periodic vs Temporary: There are secondary data issued and published periodically (every month, quarterly, bi-monthly or semi-annual), usually represented in reports and statistics, and there are non-periodic secondary data, which relate to research or a specific problem at a particular time and are more the cost of the first kind.
The primary sources of secondary data are: "external sources and internal sources": (Sallis et.al, 2021) internal sources: Internal sources of secondary data can be considered as the sources that refer to those sources available within the company, which can be generally categorized into three main groups: accounting records, salespeople reports, sales records, and finally, records and files with various other interests. (Kumara, 2022( External sources: External secondary sources of secondary data needed to prepare marketing research are so numerous and diverse that external secondary data is available for every marketing research problem. Although external secondary data sources are multiple and varied, they can be classified into six main groups in libraries, associations, offices, government agencies, censuses, directories, and specialized commercial research facilities. (Pothier, 2022). Advantages of secondary data: The high value of this type of data in terms of its importance in assisting the researcher in identifying the features of the studied phenomenon and crystallizing the problem by providing evidence and documented evidence through reports and statistics. Secondary data is also one of the most important means for the researcher, which helps him in determining the parameters and size of the research community, calculating the sample, and selecting the locations of its vocabulary (Khatunet al., 2022). The importance of secondary data can be summarized as follows: (Bridges,2021) 1- Providing the researcher with sufficient information to solve the research problem
2- They are valuable sources of new ideas 3- Testing the available secondary data is a prerequisite for collecting primary data 4- It is used to collect primary data 5- Secondary data help define the research community and its sample Secondary data issues: The use of secondary data has significant problems due to its associated shortcomings: Lack of sufficient data: There are some field researches that need information that cannot be found in secondary data. For example, the researcher may need data on the sales volume of competitors for the company. And that research requires some kind of data on consumer preferences. Not related to the research problem and needs: The basis is that the secondary data collected by the researcher must be directly related to the research problem. (Bridges,2021) - Inaccuracy: The real problem facing researchers is not just the inaccuracy in the secondary data used but in the difficulty of determining to what degree the data is likely to be inaccurate, so when resorting to secondary data, the original source must be used whenever possible. Adequacy: The secondary data needed for the marketing research may be available and related to the problem and needs of the science of research and accurate, but it is not sufficient to meet the requirements of the research from the data, and in such a case there is a need for primary data that the researcher must collect by himself from the field. (Kumara, 2022) References