Literature Review

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Salem (2020) SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS The effect of social media networks on daily life has become exceptionally crucial. Hence, using platforms of social media are significantly vital for the business sector as a whole for attracting customers' purposes (Jayasuriya, Azam, Khatibi, Atan, & Dharmaratne, 2018) A preferable way is to attract followers by forming pages and groups on social media platforms such as Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, etc (De Vries, Gensler, & Leeflang,2012). Social media networks have changed the interaction path between customers and institutions. Every person has a platform to engage with others and give feedback easily because the access is better to goods and services information and the final purchase decision (Wang, Yu, & Wei, 2012). So in the knowledge era, Public and Private higher education institutions are increasingly dealing with social networks like Twitter and Facebook to affect communication with potential clients. In addition, universities' admission offices and marketing departments are based on social media platforms to engage with likely students by setting promotions campaigns (Merrill, 2011). This research analyzes social media marketing in higher education institutions by applying for a systematic literature review. Also, the paper focuses on determining the tools and strategies universities use to promote their brands and how social media marketing strengthens the competitive advantage of higher education institutions. As for the higher education institutions sector, it is considered one of the most important sectors in developed countries because of its great contributions to the development process.
faculty members don't use Facebook enough, therefore it leads to less engagement with students on social media networks. According to the study of Vrontis Nemar, Ouwaida, and Shams (2018), they found that international students still prefer to engage with traditional resources in the search stage to find information, apart from social media platforms and other electronic ways. the content of social media is relevant to the brand, then they have a high positive effect on the university brand loyalty of students. Moreover, popular content seems to be an effective type of brand loyalty of university students. Also, the study of Demirer (2017) focused on the e analysis of the content of Facebook posts, the results showed that the best universities in Turkey are based on content which includes text, pictures, and link content type. Study of Rutter, Roper, and Lettice (2016) and of Zickar, Ron, and Arnold (2018) confirmed the positive role of social media networks on the recruitment performance. The accelerated growth of businesses in terms of the global economy and globalization has made the world more competitive. The Education sector, notably higher education institutions, is one of the sides affected by this growth. This paper illustrated the impact of social media networks on higher education institutions regarding how Universities use Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Youtube, and their websites. Social media platforms are the most crucial instrument to attract prospective students and communicate with and keep current students. Facebook, Twitter, and Youtube are common platforms used by Universities to communicate with students and promote their programs;
importance of social media platforms in terms of engaging with current students and prospective students; communicating with students through social media networks enhances the relationships between university and students. It is possible to say that students feel their value when university communicates them through social media that reflects the good image to prospective students. On the other hand, using the websites of the Universities is not as effective as social media; they are considered a traditional way, but they could be linked with social media networks. Moreover, it is important to mention that Alumni play an important role in the process of attracting new students. Ivana Jadrić and Sandra Kovačević (2018) Online social media can be defined as ''a service based on the web which allows individuals to (1) build an a-public or semi-public profile in an enclosed system, (2) create a list of users they are linked to, and (3) observe and use their lists of connections and other people's lists of connections inside the system. An Internet marketing campaign via social media, the most common online marketing activity today, requires psychological analysis of users and classifying a target group to reach the ''right'' people. Analyzing users as the first important step, it is also essential to keep constant communication with the group and to interpret feedback from the users to implement gained information into the development of an online marketing strategy The advantage of using social media in marketing campaigns is also evident in increasing return on investment, upgrading consumer acquisition, and enabling further
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