LEC 12

Organizational Behavior October 1, 2021 C3: Contextual Theories of Motivation - all those approaches of what you can do in your environment. 1. Reinforcement Theory a. Positive reinforcement i. When a desirable stimulus is supplied to a person following some behavior, this stimulus is said to have positively reinforced if the behavior before the stimulus is likely to occur again. (e.g., praise, promotion) Event is Applied b. Negative reinforcement i. When an unpleasant situation or stimulus is removed following some behavior. The badgering from supervisor/manager makes behavior more likely to occur again. Event is Withdrawn c. Punishment i. When an unpleasant event occurs after some behavior and makes the behavior less likely to occur again. Event is Applied d. Extinction i. When the withdrawal of something positive results in the behavior of something less likely to occur. Event is Withdrawn 2. Job Design as a Motivator a. What can I manipulate in a job to become more motivated? b. The structure, content, and configuration of a person's work, task, and roles. i. This means, how is it set up, what is it that they are you to do, and who is it that you're involved in. c. Job Scope: measure people on their scope; the number of different activities performed at a job (job breath) also, the degree of discretion or control a person has over their job (job depth; culture, values, etc.) d. **Job Involvement: cognitive state when the employee identifies with the job, realizing that what you're doing is important and how involved are you in your job. e. Job Enlargement: expanding jobs by increasing the number of tasks you did. f. Job Enrichment: the design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation, quality of work-life, and job involvement. g. 5 Core Job Characteristics: This theory is about manipulating the 5 core characteristics of people's jobs. i. Skill Variety: the extent to which a job involves a variety of different activities. This model says go in and allow people to increase their variety, have a lot of different things to do. ii. Task Identity: the extent to which a job involves the completion of a whole identifiable task. Are you able to see the little piece of work you do is leading up to a bigger picture? iii. Task Significance: the extent to which the worker perceives that the job is important and has significant impact on people.
iv. Autonomy: the extent to which the job allows the worker to determine how he does his work. v. Feedback from Job: The extent to which performing the job results in the worker receiving clear information about the job. h. **Extension of Task Significance: Relational Job Design/Relational Architecture of Job; structural opportunity of work that shape employee's opportunities to connect and interact with other people (prosocial motivation). 3. Money as a Motivator a. Pay for Performance Plans i. Production Jobs (manufacturing, warehouse jobs) piece rate pay system (Taylorism) 1. With or without union 2. Wage incentive plan, hourly wage + extra amount of money for extra work done. ii. White Collar/Professional Jobs: commission or bonus
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