IT Theories and Models .edited

Theories in Information Technology and Their Evolution Information technology theories have changed over time. Beginning mostly in the late 1900's scientists and analysts have used data to predict how technology has been and will be used. Some theories have adapted to current trends, while others have remained the same. These theories have begun to be used in fields of study other than information technology due to the results they provide. I found it interesting that the idea of technology is not new, but how people perceive it has changed. The Theory of Technology, presented by Claude E Shannon, was recorded in 1948. It was used to explain, at a high-level, technology and how to utilize it in daily life. Since most widespread computer usage began in the 1980s, it is understandable that the theories took time to develop and be recognized as reasons for behavior and use. The image below illustrates the timeline of most behavior theories. 1 1 Momani, Alaa & Jamous, Mamoun. (2017). The Evolution of Technology Acceptance Theories. International Journal of Contemporary Computer Research (IJCCR). 1. 50-58.
Information technology theories have branched off to be used in agriculture, education, and healthcare. They are helping to shape advancements as technology develops. Healthcare is looking more at data analytics and farmers using technology to grow crops better by using data. The theory of planned behavior and reasoned actions are the most complimentary of the ideas I studied. The theory of planned behavior "was an attempt to extend the TRA to include behaviors that are not entirely under volitional control, for example giving up smoking or using a condom." 2 The Theory of Reasoned Action suggests "that most behaviors of social relevance (including health behaviors) are under volitional control, and that a person's intention to perform a behavior is both the immediate determinant and the single best predictor of that behavior. Intention in turn is held to be a function of two basic determinants: attitude towards the behavior (the person's overall evaluation of performing the behavior) and subjective norm (the perceived expectations of important others with regard to the individual performing the behavior in question)." 3 These theories both use human behavior as the factor in determining technological advancement. They suggest technology should be well regarded, needed, and of value. If people do not perceive these things, they will not support the technology, and it will flounder. These theories might suggest why some brands of technology do better than others. Another closely related theory is the Value-Sensitive Design Theory, which is described as "a theoretically grounded approach to the design of technology that accounts for human values in a principled and comprehensive manner throughout the design process. It employs an 2 Health Behavior: Psychosocial Theories S. Sutton, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001 1.4 The Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior 3 Health Behavior: Psychosocial Theories S. Sutton, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001 1.4 The Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior
integrative and iterative tripartite methodology, consisting of conceptual, empirical, and technical investigations." 4 The key point of the evolution of information technology theories and models is that they constantly evolve. They involve human behavior and beliefs. They also involve the non-human objects that are interacted with, commonly referred to as actors and their involvement in the technological process. Many theories are interrelated as they build off one another or add onto another, such as TRA, TPB, and VSD. Some theories are contradictory, while others are complementary. An example of a contradictory theory is the Technology Acceptance Model versus the Social Construction Of Technology theory. TAM theory says "that the acceptance of technology is predicted by the users' behavioural intention, which is, in turn, determined by the perception of technology usefulness in performing the task and perceived ease of its use." 5 The SCOT theory suggests "that technology does not determine human action, but that rather, human action shapes technology." 6 To me, these theories contradict one another because one says that people will use technology based on if it is useful and cost-effective. The other states that technology is built because of our actions and desires for it. From theories that postulate that human behavior determines technology to theories that suggest human behavior is shaped by technology, the theories all seem intertwined when it comes to human behavior. They might look at various aspects of human behavior, but they all 4 Friedman, Batya & Kahn, Peter & Borning, Alan & Zhang, Ping & Galletta, Dennis. (2006). Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems. 10.1007/978-94-007-7844-3_4. 5 Marikyan, D. & Papagiannidis, S. (2022) Technology Acceptance Model: A review . In S. Papagiannidis (Ed), TheoryHub Book . Available at / ISBN: 9781739604400 6 Joseph Klett. 20 July 2018, "SCOT", STS Infrastructures, Platform for Experimental Collaborative Ethnography, last modified 20 July 2018, accessed 27 April 2023.
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