Chapter 4

Chapter 4- Job Analysis and Competency Models Work and Job Analysis Work analysis- any systematic gathering documenting and analysing of information about the content of work performed. Job analysis- the process of collecting information about jobs "by any method for any purpose" Does not refer to a single methodology but rather to a range of techniques A formal structured process carried out under a set of guidelines established in advance Breaks down a job into its constituent parts, rather than looking at the jobs as a whole The goal is to intimately understand how a job is performed Job Analysis and Job Relatedness Job analysis is a legally acceptable way of determining job-relatedness A good job analysis ensures accurate information on skill, effort, responsibility, working conditions, reducing the likelihood of impediments to equitable employment access for Canadians Provides objective evidence of the skills and abilities required for effective performance Job relatedness refers to the extent to which a particular requirement is related to the skills and abilities needed to perform the job In other words, job relatedness is the degree to which a requirement is necessary for the successful performance of a job. Job Description and Specification Job description is a written description of what job occupants are required to do, how they are supposed to do it, and the rationale for any required job procedures Job specification is the knowledge, skills, abilities and other attributes or competencies that are needed by a job incumbent to perform well on the job Job Evaluation The job specification may include the compensable factors that are used in performing a job evaluation, such as analytical abilities, physical exertion, etc. Job evaluation is a specific application of job analysis to determine a job's value to the organization in order to establish the pay range for the job Job versus Position Job- a collection of positions that are similar in their significant duties Position- a collection of duties assigned to individuals in an organization at a given time Job family- a set of different, but related, job that rely on the same set of KSAOs Subject-Matter Experts People who are most knowledgeable about a job and how it is currently performed, generally job incumbent and their supervisors Job Analysis and Employment Law There are no laws that are specifically require a job analysis prior to implementing recruitment and selection programs, job analysis is a legally acceptable way of determining job-relatedness
Conducting a job analysis is the first line of defence in protecting the organization if its selection procedures are challenged in court Job Analysis Methods The goal of job analysis should always be the description of observable work behaviours The results should describe the work behaviour independent of the personal characteristics of employees who perform the job Job analysis must be verifiable and replicable Gathering Job-Related Information The first step is preparing for a job analysis is to collect available information describing the target job O*net Content Model Work and Worker-Oriented Job Analysis Work oriented job analysis is techniques that emphasize work outcomes and descriptions of the various tasks performed to accomplish those outcomes Techniques that emphasize general aspects of jobs, describing perceptual, interpersonal, sensory, cognitive, and physical activities Structures job analysis interviews A data collection method that involves questioning individuals or small groups of employees and supervisors using the same set of questions about the job Inter-observer reliability increases when interviews are structured because the individual biases of different interviewers are minimized Interviews should be well planned and carefully conducted The job analyst should record the incumbent's or supervisor's responses by taking notes or by taping the interview The interview should elicit information about job tasks, physical activities involved in the job, and environmental conditions (physical and social) under which the work occurs Direct observation A work-oriented method: the job analyst unobtrusively documents what employees do as they carry out their job activities
Rating task statements Task statements contain four elements: 1. A verb describing the action being performed 2. An object of the verb that describes to whom/what the action is being done 3. A description of tools, equipment, work aids, and processes required for the successful competition of the task 4. An expected output describing the result of the action KSAOS Knowledge: a body of information, usually of a factual or procedural nature, that makes for successful performance of a task Skill: an individual's level of proficiency or competency in performing a specific task. Level of competency is typically expressed in numerical terms Ability: a more general, enduring trait or capability an individual possesses at the time they begin to perform a task Other attributes: include personality traits and other individual characteristics that are integral to job performance Structured job analysis questionnaires Require workers and other SMEs to respond to written questions about their jobs Respondents are asked to make judgments about activities, tasks, tools, and equipment, and working conditions involved in the job Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) is a worker-oriented structured job analysis questionnaire that focuses on the general behaviours that makeup a job Task Inventories Break down jobs into their component tasks Permits workers to define their jobs in relation to a subset of tasks appearing in the inventory According to uniform guidelines, job analysis should access: 1. Duties performed 2. Level of difficulty of job duties 3. Job context (physical working conditions, work schedules, social context and organizational culture, and financial and nonfinancial incentives for performance 4. Criticality of duties to the job Functional job analysis The focus group with SMEs to generate the job information Several rating processes to describe this information Critical incident technique (CIT) Gathers examples of critical job incidents (positive and negative) from job experts including the circumstances that led to the incident, the employee behaviours during the incident, and the outcome of those behaviours CIT generates examples of effective and ineffective work behaviours that are related to superior or inferior performance Also generates behaviourally focused descriptions of work activities
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