ARTS3000: Stages of Group Development Notes on Tuckman 1965, pp. 396-397, prepared by Dr Justine Lloyd, Macquarie University Pre-cautions: Reflection and evaluation is often required to move through the stages; groups who do this regularly may find it useful to appoint an outside facilitator (from within the organisation, or another team) to help them do this However, definitely not one-way a linear process; groups can move back and forward through stages, and some members may be in a different stage to the overall group The four key stages, according to Tuckman 1965 are: 1.Group is Forming: orientation, testing, and dependence Key observable phenomena: exploration of motivations and aspirations; testing of boundaries of both interpersonal and task behaviours key underlying processes: establishing trust, opening channels of communication between individuals key outcomes: Testing of dependency relationships with leaders, other group members, or preexisting standards: TO MOVE THROUGH THIS STAGEFOCUS ON SHARED GOALS 2.Group is storming: Key observable phenomena: conflict and polarization around interpersonal issues as well as in the task sphere; frustration or overwhelm expressed by individual members Key underlying processes: individual roles and positions are being asserted as a form of resistance to group influence and task requirements key outcomes: conflicts and tensions are brought out into the open, members become more realistic about the actual goals and what is achievable:TO MOVE THROUGH THIS STAGEFOCUS ON ROLES & STRATEGIES BASED ON SHARED GOALS Note: if recognised and moved through, more easily leads to next stage. However, some groups can get stuck here, particularly if the bigger picture behind this conflict is not addressed. Might need some reflection and re-evaluation for the team to refocus on its goals, perhaps breaking larger goals down into smaller, achievable steps and clarifying roles. 3.Group is norming Key observable phenomena: Resistances expressed in stage 2 is overcome as in-group feeling and cohesiveness develop, new standards evolve, and new roles are adopted. In the task realm, constructive personal opinions are expressed. Key underlying processes: group and task requirement are 'socialised' and the focus becomes the group's goals alongside individual needs/considerations. key outcomes: a feeling of "pulling together" emerges with members becoming more sensitive to the needs of eachother: TO MOVE THROUGH THIS STAGEFOCUS ON NORMS (WHAT DID YOU AGREE UPON AT 2 EARLIER STAGES?) 4.Group is performing Key observable phenomena: Roles become flexible and functional, for example, roles become interchange-able as needed if one group member's task is too large or too small; the rest of the group will reorganise to help meet overall goals; strengths and weaknesses are acknowledged and strengths built upon
ARTS3000: Stages of Group Development Notes on Tuckman 1965, pp. 396-397, prepared by Dr Justine Lloyd, Macquarie University Key underlying processes: group energy is channeled into the task; interpersonal structure becomes the tool of task activities key outcomes: Structural issues have been resolved, and structure can now become supportive of task performance:TO MOVE THROUGH THIS STAGEFOCUS ON OVERALL IMPACT & HANDOVER OF PROJECT TO STAKEHOLDERS Possible additional stages: 5.Group is adjourning(reported in Tuckman & Jensen 1977) Key observable phenomena: group achieves the overall goals and individual members move onto other tasks/projects; group recognises, evaluates and celebrates overall achievements Key underlying processes: group energy is redirected into looking beyond the project; some feelings of loss and sadness might be felt for group as a whole key outcomes: groups recognise, share and document lessons learnt within and outside the group; explicit recognition of this stage via informal or formal rituals of closure:TO MOVE THROUGH THIS STAGEACKNOWLEDGE & FOCUS ON LONG-TERM CHANGES/INSIGHTS THAT YOU (AS A GROUP OR INDIVIDUAL) CAN TAKE TO THE NEXT PROJECT 6.Group is reforming(various authors responding to Tuckman, such as White 2009) Key observable phenomena: group picks up new members or projects but quickly moves through cycles and can even shorten or skip the 'storming' stage Key underlying processes: individual members are aware of context and processes of group formation and are able to discuss ways to negotiate issues quickly; differences are engaged with and conflict is dealt with in a positive way; tools and learning from previous projects are valued and used to inform new projects key outcomes: groups adapt to and negotiate changes and challenges that are put in their way:TO MOVE THROUGH THIS STAGEFOCUS ON WHAT IS NEEDED AT THE TIME, I.E. WHAT STEPS MIGHT HAVE BEEN SKIPPED IN STARTING THIS NEW PROJECT? Sources/Further Reading(click on 'Go to item' to see this source in Leganto): Ryder, L. (2019)Storm To Perform: The 4 Stages Of Team Productivity. [Online]. Autumn 1820. Available from:https://blog.trello.com/form-storm-norm-perform-stages-of-team-productivity. Tuckman, B.W. (1965) Developmental sequence in small groups.Psychological Bulletin. [Online] 63 (6), 384-399. Available from: https://multisearch.mq.edu.au/permalink/61MACQUARIE_INST/467l3g/cdi_proquest_miscellan eous_84048068. Bruce W Tuckman & Mary Ann C Jensen (2010/1977) Stages of Small-Group Development Revisited. Group facilitation. (10), 43-48. White, A. (2009)From Comfort Zone to Performance Management. [Online]. Baisy-Thy, White & MacLean. Available from:
ARTS3000: Stages of Group Development Notes on Tuckman 1965, pp. 396-397, prepared by Dr Justine Lloyd, Macquarie University https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228957278_From_Comfort_Zone_to_Performance_Ma nagement/download.
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