1BA3 Power, Politics, and Ethics

Power, Politics, and Ethics Power : the capacity to influence others who are in a state of dependence Can be applied to individuals and groups Five Bases (Types of Individual Power) Legitimate power : power derived from a person's position or job in an organization Ex. president of your company asks you to do something Reward power : power derived from the ability to provide positive outcomes and prevent negative outcomes Ex . you accept overtime because you want your boss to promote you Uses positive reinforcement Coercive power : power derived from the use of punishment and threat Controlling people through fear Ex . you arrive to work 15 minutes early because you know your boss will be very agitated if you're late Referent power : power derived from being well liked by others Ex . people will do a favour for you because you are highly respected, admired and are seen as a role model by others Expert power : power derived from having special information or expertise that is valued by an organization Ex . everyone at work comes to you with questions about data analytics because you have an EMBA in Digital Transformation Has the most employee effectiveness - you're going to have the most influence and get the biggest impact A great leader will know how to pick which of these is most effective according to the situation Skill based on experience Video : Cultivating Power in the Workplace There's often unexploited resources in the workplace If we spend our time networking with people we already know, we're not expanding our horizons How Do People Obtain Power?
Doing the right things : Extraordinary activities : one needs is excellent performance in unusual or non-routine activities Visible activities : people who have an interest in power are especially good at identifying visible activities and publicizing them Relevant activities : if nobody sees the work as relevant to the solution of important organizational problems, it will not add to one's influence Cultivating the right people : develop informal relationships with the right people Outsiders : establishing good relationships with key people outside one's organization can lead to increased power within the organization Subordinates : an individual can gain influence if they're closely identified with certain up-and-coming subordinates Having a cultivated relationship earlier, one might be rewarded with special influence Peers : cultivating good relationships with peers is mainly a means of ensuring that nothing gets in the way of one's future acquisition of power People often avoid contact with peers whose reputation is seen as questionable Superiors : liaisons wit key superiors probably represent the best way of obtaining power through cultivating others Superiors are often called "mentors" or "sponsors" because of the special interest they show in a promising subordinate Empowerment-Putting Power Where It Is Needed Empowerment : giving people the authority, opportunity, and motivation to take initiative and solve organizational problems Giving people the freedom and ability to make decisions and commitment Puts power where it is needed to make it effective People who are empowered have a strong sense of self-efficacy Can foster job satisfaction More organizational citizenship behaviours Can lead to higher performance People are empowered, and should exhibit effective performance, when they have sufficient power to carry out their jobs
Influence Tactics-Putting Power to Work Influence tactics : tactics that are used to convert power into actual influence over others Assertiveness : ordering, nagging, setting deadlines, and verbally confronting others Ingratiation : using flattery; acting friendly, polite, or humble; opinion conformity Self-promotion : touting one's accomplishments, image enhancements, name-dropping Rationality : using logic, reason, planning, and compromise Exchange : doing favours or offering to trade favours Upward appeal : making formal or informal Coalition formation : seeking united support from other organizational members What determines which influence tactics you would use? Type of power Someone with coercive power might gravitate toward assertiveness Someone with referent power might gravitate toward ingratiation Someone with expert power might try rationality or self-promotion Rationality is a highly prized quality in organizations - people use it very frequently Whom you are trying to influence (subordinates, peers, or superiors) Subordinates are more likely to be the recipients of assertiveness than peers or superiors Rationality is more likely to be direction toward superiors, as is ingratiation Self-promotion is universally employed Who Wants Power? Those high on McClelland's Need for Power (N-Pow) McClelland argues that the most effective managers ("Institutional Managers") : Have high N-Power Use their power to achieve organizational goals Adopt a participative or "coaching" leadership style Are relatively unconcerned with how much others like them
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