Power, Politics, and Ethics ●Power: the capacity to influence others who are in a state of dependence ●Can be applied to individuals and groups Five Bases (Types of Individual Power) ●Legitimate power: power derived from a person's position or job in an organization ○Ex.president of your company asks you to do something ●Reward power: power derived from the ability to provide positive outcomes and prevent negative outcomes ○Ex. you accept overtime because you want your boss to promote you ○Uses positive reinforcement ●Coercive power: power derived from the use of punishment and threat ○Controlling people through fear ○Ex. you arrive to work 15 minutes early because you know your boss will be very agitated if you're late ●Referent power: power derived from being well liked by others ○Ex. people will do a favour for you because you are highly respected, admired and are seen as a role model by others ●Expert power: power derived from having special information or expertise that is valued by an organization ○Ex. everyone at work comes to you with questions about data analytics because you have an EMBA in Digital Transformation ○Has the most employee effectiveness - you're going to have the most influence and get the biggest impact ●A great leader will know how to pick which of these is most effective according to the situation ○Skill based on experience Video: Cultivating Power in the Workplace ●There's often unexploited resources in the workplace ●If we spend our time networking with people we already know, we're not expanding our horizons How Do People Obtain Power?
●Doing the right things: ○Extraordinary activities: one needs is excellent performance in unusual or non-routine activities ○Visible activities: people who have an interest in power are especially good at identifying visible activities and publicizing them ○Relevant activities: if nobody sees the work as relevant to the solution of important organizational problems, it will not add to one's influence ●Cultivating the right people: develop informal relationships with the right people ○Outsiders: establishing good relationships with key people outside one's organization can lead to increased power within the organization ○Subordinates: an individual can gain influence if they're closely identified with certain up-and-coming subordinates ■Having a cultivated relationship earlier, one might be rewarded with special influence ○Peers: cultivating good relationships with peers is mainly a means of ensuring that nothing gets in the way of one's future acquisition of power ■People often avoid contact with peers whose reputation is seen as questionable ○Superiors: liaisons wit key superiors probably represent the best way of obtaining power through cultivating others ■Superiors are often called "mentors" or "sponsors" because of the special interest they show in a promising subordinate Empowerment-Putting Power Where It Is Needed ●Empowerment: giving people the authority, opportunity, and motivation to take initiative and solve organizational problems ●Giving people the freedom and ability to make decisions and commitment ●Puts power where it is needed to make it effective ●People who are empowered have a strong sense of self-efficacy ●Can foster job satisfaction ●More organizational citizenship behaviours ●Can lead to higher performance ●People are empowered, and should exhibit effective performance, when they have sufficient power to carry out their jobs
Influence Tactics-Putting Power to Work ●Influence tactics: tactics that are used to convert power into actual influence over others ○Assertiveness: ordering, nagging, setting deadlines, and verbally confronting others ○Ingratiation: using flattery; acting friendly, polite, or humble; opinion conformity ○Self-promotion: touting one's accomplishments, image enhancements, name-dropping ○Rationality: using logic, reason, planning, and compromise ○Exchange: doing favours or offering to trade favours ○Upward appeal: making formal or informal ○Coalition formation: seeking united support from other organizational members ●What determines which influence tactics you would use? ○Type of power ■Someone with coercive power might gravitate toward assertiveness ■Someone with referent power might gravitate toward ingratiation ■Someone with expert power might try rationality or self-promotion ■Rationality is a highly prized quality in organizations - people use it very frequently ○Whom you are trying to influence(subordinates, peers, or superiors) ■Subordinates are more likely to be the recipients of assertiveness than peers or superiors ■Rationality is more likely to be direction toward superiors, as is ingratiation ■Self-promotion is universally employed Who Wants Power? ●Those high on McClelland's Need for Power (N-Pow) ●McClelland argues that the most effective managers ("Institutional Managers"): ○Have high N-Power ○Use their power to achieve organizational goals ○Adopt a participative or "coaching" leadership style ○Are relatively unconcerned with how much others like them