Copy of Week 4 Part ii Readings

.docx
School
Northern Virginia Community College **We aren't endorsed by this school
Course
PLS 120
Subject
Management
Date
Oct 11, 2023
Pages
2
Uploaded by JusticeRiverStork23 on coursehero.com
Deterrence, Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) Lieber & Press (10-25) → nuclear arms are fundamentally secure Secure from foerign threats - no longer need to worry abt the economic or military growth of rivals, build powerful alliances, engage in arms race, compete over strategic territory → balance of power no longer necessary when survival practically guaranteed by nuclear weapons Nuclear era should be marked by peaceful world free of intense international hospitality and competition - this has failed to materialize Question: Why have nuclear weapons not transformed international politics? Why do nuclear armed countries continue to compete for power,allies, strategic territory and military superiority> Main explanations: the immense destructiveness of weapons & propensity to create stalemate Show that patterns of international relations since 1945 contradict the idea that nuclear weapons transform geopolitics → destructiveness of the nuclear weapons cannot adequately explain the uniques deterrent power of these weapons - need the logic of stalemate to explain deterrence The defining feature of nuclear deterrence is not "overkill" but "mutual kill" Impossibility of victory Foundations of stalemate: Small - difficult to locate and destroy w disarming strike Amount of explosive power Easy to deliver → no two nuclear-armed state have fought a major war against each other → great power wars disappeared after nuclear weapons were created Great body of evidence to suppose these claims yet there are anomalies → persistence of relative-gains concerns in the nuclear age; alliances; arms race; constant seeking of strategic territory is a puzzle Turned et al. (5 pages) → Past - testing sites considered "remote" by European and American standards → perpetuation of Western hegemony and dominance over the Global South → the exclusion of Black professionals and experiences in the nuclear community creates a privileged bubble that prevents insiders from seeing their field in racial terms Perpetuation of epistemic racism Both epistemic injustices and institutional racism must be acknowledged and addressed jointly in earnest to create a truly antiracist future in the nuclear community Measures of action: Institutions must ensure that workload and performance are evaluated equitably, especially in the tenure and promotion process Should adopt policies such as flexible hours or telecommuniting that allow employees to fully participate without asking them to live within an unwelcoming or unaffordable community
Schelling Diplomacy versus Force? Diplomacy = bargaining Brute force = actually goes to destroys thinks → What is the power to hurt? Why is it important? How does brute force differ from coercion? What is a prerequisite for coercion? → power to hurt is a bargaining power → exploit it is diplomacy → When is violence most successful? What is Schelling's contribution? Coercion → exploits the power to hurt Violence is most successful when not used → hurting is not unconcerned with the interest of others → it is measure in the suffering it can cause and the victims' motivation to avoid it → only coerce people to behave to avoid it/ influence decisions
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