MANA 201 Notes on the Chapter 14 — Leading and Leadership Development — 2021/11/08 - 1. The Nature of Leadership o 1/4 Leadership and Power o Leadership The process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks What is the difference between a boss and a leader? o Leaders lead o A boss manage It is one of the four functions that constitute the management process o 1. Planning: To set the direction o 2. Organizing: To create structures Bringing together resources to turn plans into action o 3. Leading: Communicate the vision Build enthusiasm Motivate commitment, hard work To apply talents to help accomplish plans o 4. Controlling: To ensure results o Power Ability to get someone else to do something you want done or make things happen the way you want Should be positive: Power should be used to influence and control others for the common good rather than seeking to exercise control for personal satisfaction Two sources of Managerial power = Position Power + Personal Power 1. Position power o Based on a manager's official status in the organization's hierarchy of authority 2. Personal power o Based on the unique personal qualities that a person brings to the leadership situation Sources of Position power 1. Reward power o Use of incentives , capability to offer something of value o E.g: Pay raises, bonuses, promotions, special assignments, verbal and written compliments o A manager tends to say: "If you do what I ask, I'll reward you." This approach works as long as people want the reward and the manager/leader makes it continuously available No reward, no power 2. Coercive power o Capability to punish or withhold (retenir) positive outcomes o A manager may attempt to coerce by threatening with Verbal reprimands Pay penalties (pénalités) Termination (congédier) 1
MANA 201 "If you don't do what I want, I'll punish you." You will do what we ordered you to do but once the threat is gone, you're unlikely to continue 3. Legitimate power o Ability to influence through authority Organizational position or status confers the right to control those in subordinate positions o A manager tends to say: I'm the boss, therefore, you need to do what I ask." You do what we asked you to do because it is legitimate in the specific context, otherwise, it becomes illegitimate, and you are unlikely to comply Prof: Do this as a homework for tomorrow Legitimate, likely to do it Prof: Support the liberal party Illegitimate, unlikely to do it Sources of Personal power 1. Expert Power o Ability to achieve influence through special skills , knowledge, and reputation o Capacity to influence others' behaviour because of expertise and high- performance reputation o Manager: "You should do what I want because of what I know and what I have accomplished." o The expertise is part of our Human capital: Human Capital Ability to get things done based on what we know and can do . It can be earned from o Education/Credentials (références) o Experience o Visible performance achievements But it has to be maintained by o Protecting credibility o Not overstepping boundaries o Not pretending to have expertise that isn't really there Although some people, such as medical doctors and lawyers, are granted at least temporary expertise due to credentials (titres de compétences), they can quickly lose it through mistakes and bad behaviour. 2. Information and Networking Power o Ability to achieve influence through access to information and contacts with other people. o It is the capacity to influence others due to being central to information flows and social networks, and as a result of being trusted as a credible information source and reliable networking partner o Manager: "I have access to information and people, I can get things done." 2
MANA 201 o Information and Network are part of social capital: Social capital Having a strong base of connections who can help you get things done 3. Referent Power o Ability to achieve influence through identification. o It is the capacity to influence others' behaviour because of their admiration and their desire for positive identification with you o Referent power derives from charisma or interpersonal likability o Manager: "You should do what I want in order to maintain a positive, self- defined relationship with me." o Referent power can be developed and maintained through good interpersonal relationships that encourage others' admiration and respect. It is a lot easier to get others to do what you want when they like you, than when they don't... o 2/4 Leadership and vision The Power Paradox The skills most important for obtaining power and leading effectively are the very skills that deteriorate once we have power. Great leaders have the power of motivating and inspiring others by their vision that they are then transforming into accomplishments Visionary leadership Vision A future that one hopes to create or achieve in order to improve upon the present state of affairs Visionary leadership A leader who brings to the situation a clear and compelling sense of the future , as well as an understanding of the actions needed to get there successfully Necessitate o To be clear [with the vision] o To communicate it o To motivate the people for it o 3/4 + 4/4 Leadership and service and Leadership and followership Servant leadership It's about leading by serving others and helping them fully use their talents so that organizations benefit society In that case, the followers are more important than the leader because the leader is " other-centred " (≠ self-centred) Followership o The act of joining with a leader to accomplish tasks and goals o Leadership is therefore " co-produced " by leaders and followers, rather than being a singular result of a leader's actions alone o Romance of leadership and the subordination of followership Situations in which the leaders is receiving all the credit for the followers' work. Focuses on empowerment, not power [That's what servant leaders focus on] Empowerment 3
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