emissions. In such cases, divesting of fossil fuel stocks may be the most utilitarian choice
because it has the greatest positive effect on both the environment and upcoming generations.
Deontology ethics dictate that decisions be made based on ethical principles and duties. In this
instance, ethical organizations have obligations to act in ways that promote social good, protect
the planet, and enrich human lives. By continuing to invest in fossil fuels, organizations
contribute to an industry that harm both the environment and society as a whole. From a
deontological perspective, ethical obligations to promote environmental sustainability would
indicate that divestment from fossil fuel stocks is the appropriate course of action. Furthermore,
this duty can be extended to upcoming generations who would definitely be affected by the long-
term consequences of fossil fuel consumption.
Virtue ethics emphasizes the qualities or character traits of individuals or in this case,
organizations that lead to ethical behaviour. Such actions be taken based on developing good
character and moral virtues, and thus, divesting of fossil fuel stocks could be seen as a virtuous
action aligning with an organization's values and commitment to ethical behaviour. From this
ethical perspective, ethical organizations should cultivate values such as responsibility, empathy,
and environmental stewardship, so investing in fossil fuels would contradict these values.
Based on the ethical duties to promote environmental sustainability and the potential adverse
consequences of continuing to invest and consumption of fossil fuels, my normative
recommendation would be for ethical organizations to completely divest from fossil fuel stocks.
This recommendation stems from deontological ethics, as it acknowledges every individual and
organization's obligation to the environment and society. The continued extraction and use of
fossil fuels is in conflict with these obligations, so complete divestment is a practical step for
organizations can take to align their behaviour with their values. While the transition away from
the use of fossil fuels may have immediate economic costs, it is necessary for the long-term
sustainability of both organizations and our planet. Furthermore, organizations must find ways to
reinvest in alternative energy sources which not only provides long-term financial gains but also