Chapter 13 Notes

Chapter 13: Project Stakeholder Management Importance of Project Stakeholder Management Because stakeholder management is so important to project success, the Project Management Institute decided to create an entire knowledge area devoted to it in 2013 The purpose of project stakeholder management is to identify all people or organizations affected by a project, to analyze stakeholder expectations, and to effectively engage stakeholders Projects often cause changes in organizations, and some people may lose their jobs when a project is complete Project managers might be viewed as enemies By contrast, they could be viewed as allies if they lead a project that helps increase profits, produce new jobs, or increase pay for certain stakeholders In any case, project managers must learn to identify, understand, and work with a variety of stakeholders Project stakeholder management processes Identifying stakeholdersL identifying everyone involved in the project or affected by it, and determining the best ways to manage relationships with them Planning stakeholder management: determining strategies to effectively engage stakeholders Managing stakeholder engagement: communicating and working with project stakeholders to satisfy their needs and expectations, resolving issues, and fostering engagement in project decisions and activities Monitoring stakeholder engagement: monitoring stakeholder relationships and adjusting plans and strategies for engaging stakeholders as needed Identifying Stakeholders
Internal project stakeholders generally include project sponsor, project team, support staff, and internal customers for the project Other internal stakeholders include top management, other functional managers, and other project managers because organizations have limited resources External project stakeholders include the projects customers (if they are external to the organizations), competitors, suppliers, and other external groups that are potentially involved in the project or affected by it, such as government officials and concerned citizens Peter Gilliland, a project management tutor and skills coach in the United Kingdom, offers an even more detailed list of potential stakeholders for a project, including: Program director and manager Project manager and family Sponsors Customer Labor unions Potential customers Competitors It is also necessary to focus on stakeholders with the most direct ties to a project Example: only key suppliers A stakeholder register includes basic information on stakeholders Identification information: stakeholders names, positions, locations, roles in the project, and contact information Assessment information: stakeholders major requirements and expectations, potential influences, and phases of the project in which stakeholders have the most interest Stakeholder classification: is the stakeholder internal or external to the organization? Is the stakeholder a supporter of the project or resistant to it? After identifying key project stakeholders, you can use different classification models to
determine an approach for managing stakeholder relationships A power/interest grid can be used to group stakeholders based on their level of authority (power) and their level of concern (interest) for project outcomes Stakeholder engagement levels: Unaware: unaware of the project and its potential impacts on them Resistant: aware of the project yet resist to change Neutral: aware of the project yet neither supportive nor resistant Supportive: aware of the project and support of change Leading: aware of the project and its potential impacts and actively engaged in helping it succeed Planning Stakeholder Management After identifying and analyzing stakeholders, project teams should develop a plan for management them May be formal or informal, based on the needs of the project The stakeholder management plan can include: Current and desired engagement levels Interrelationships between stakeholders Communication requirements Potential management strategies for each stakeholders Methods for updating the stakeholder management plan Because a stakeholder management plan often includes sensitive information, it should not be part of the official project documents, which are normally available for all stakeholders to review In many cases, only project managers and af ew other team members should prepare the stakeholder management plan Parts of the stakeholder management plan are not written down, and if they are, distribution is strictly limited Managing Stakeholder Engagement
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