MGM101 Notes -pages-37-66

Chapter 11 - Motivating, Satisfying, and Leading Employees LO-1: Forms of Employee Behavior Employee behavior: is the pattern of actions by the members of an organization that directly or indirectly influences the organization's effectiveness PERFORMANCE BEHAVIOR : those that are directly involved in performing a job. ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP : provides positive benefits to the organization in more indirect ways. An employee who does satisfactory work in terms of quantity and quality but refuses to work overtime, won't help newcomers learn the ropes, and is generally unwilling to make any contribution beyond the strict performance requirements of the job is not a good organization citizen. In contrast an employee with a satisfactory level of performance who works late when the boss asks and takes time to help newcomers learn their way around is a good organizational citizen. Counterproductive behaviors : are those that detract from organizational performance Other forms of counterproductive behavior are also costly. Theft and sabotage, sexual and racial harassment also cost an organization, both directly (through financial liability if the organization responds inappropriately) and indirectly (by lowering morale, producing fear, and driving off valuable employees). Workplace aggression and violence are also counterproductive. ABSENTEEISM : is an example of a counterproductive behavior TARDINESS : is a counterproductive behavior TURNOVER : occurs when people quit their jobs. It results from a number of factors, including the nature of the job, the nature of supervision, a poor person-job fit, the external labor market, and family influences LO-2: Individual Differences Among Employees Individual differences : are physical, psychological, and emotional attributes that vary from one person to another. The individual differences that characterize a specific person make that person unique. Personality attitudes are two main categories of individual difference. Personality : is the relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguish one person from another. It contains the "big five" traits: AGREEABLENESS : is a persons ability to get along with others CONSCIENTIOUSNESS : refers to the number of things a person tries to accomplish EMOTIONALLY : refers to the degree to which people tend to be positive or negative in their outlook and behavior toward others 37
EXTRAVERSION : refers to a person's comfort level with relationships. OPENNESS : Openness reflects how open or rigid a person is in terms of his or her beliefs. Emotional intelligence, or emotional quotient (EQ) : refers to the extent to which people possess social skills, are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, and can express empathy for others. Other Personality Traits LOCUS OF CONTROL : extent to which people believe that their behavior has a real effect on what happens to them INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL : individuals believe that they control what happens to them EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL : individuals believe that fate or luck controls what happens to theme SELF-EFFICIENCY : is a person's beliefs about his or her capabilities to perform a task AUTHORITARIANISM : extent to which a person believes that power and status differences are appropriate within social systems such as organizations MACHIAVELLIANISM : refers to behavior that is designed to gain power and control SELF-ESTEEM : extent to which a person believes that he or she is a worthwhile and deserving individual RISK PROPENSITY : is the degree to which person is willing to take chances and make risky decisions Attitudes: a person's beliefs and feelings about specific ideas, situations, or people. COGNITION : is knowledge a person has about someone or something AFFECT: is a person's feelings toward someone or something INTENTION : guides a person's behavior Job Satisfaction: the extent to which people have positive attitudes toward their jobs. MORALE : refers to the overall attitude people have toward their workplace Organizational Commitment : reflects an individual's identification with the organization and its mission. LO-3: Matching People and Jobs Psychological Contract : is the set of expectations held by an employee concerning what he or she will contribute to an organization and what the organization will provide to the employee. 38
Person-Job Fit : refers to the extent to which a person's contributions and the organization's inducements match one another Motivation : means the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION: is evident when a worker does a task in order to get a reward from someone else. INTRISTIC MOTIVATION : occurs when a worker does a task because that task is inherently satisfying, enjoyable, or meaningful to the person. Classical Theory of Motivation : it is assumed that workers are motivated solely by money. Hawthorne Effect : the tendency for workers' productivity to increase when they feel they are getting special attention from management. HUMAN RELATIONS : the interactions between employers and employees and their attitudes toward one another. LO-4: Behavioral Theory in the Mid-Twentieth Century Theory X : managers who subscribe to this theory tend to believe that people are naturally lazy and uncooperative and must therefore be either punished or rewarded to be made productive. Theory Y : managers who subscribe to this theory tend to believe that people are naturally energetic, growth-oriented, self-motivated, and interested in being productive Hierarchy of Human Needs Model : proposed that people have a number of different needs that they attempt to satisfy in their work PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS : are those concerned with survival; they include food, water, shelter, and sleep. SECURITY NEEDS : includes the needs for stability and protection from the unknown SOCIAL NEEDS : include the needs for friendship and companionship ESTEEM NEEDS : include the needs for status, recognition, and self-respect SELF-ACTUALIZATION : are needs for self-fulfillment Frederick Herzberg proposed the Two-Factor Theory , which says that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction depend on two separate factors: HYGIENE FACTORS and MOTIVATING FACTORS : 39
Uploaded by mashukhalid123 on