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2. Key assumptions and commitments in CL Two key commitment: "the generalization commitment" and "cognitive commitment" The Generalization Commitment: The commitment to characterize the general principles governing all aspects of human language. Leads to search for principles of language structures that hold across all aspects of language. 55. C hapter 2, 2.1 u 2.1. The cognitive commitment: Principles of linguistic structure should reflect what is known about human cognition from other disciplines ( cognitive science ). In other words language and linguistic organizations should reflect general "cognitive principles" not "principles" that are specific to language. Providing a characterization of general principles for language that accords with what is known about the brain and mind from other disciplines. 67-68 Chapter 2, 2.1.2 Evidence for the generalization commitment: Categorization: Human categories appear to be fuzzy rather then "all or nothing". Some membe rs of a category seem to be more "central then others. Some are representative for their certain category while others are said to exhibit family resemblance however, fuzziness and family resemblance are not just features that apply to phyisical objects, they also apply to linguistic categories like morphemes and words. 56 Chapter 2, 2.1 Polysemy: A single linguistic unit exhibts multiple distinct yet related meanings. CL argues that polysemy is not just restricted to word meaning but also fundamental features of human language. The key to generalization across a range of "distinct" phenomena 63 Chapter 2 Metaphor: Phenomenon where one conceptual domain is systematically structural in terms of another. Meaning extension. Metaphor give rise to new meaning 65 Chapter 2
3. Universal and variation in language, thought and experience conceptual structure: representing concepts in terms of a small number of conceptual primitives. knowledge representation, including the structure and organisation of concepts 81 Chapter 3 conceptualisation: the process of meaning construction, the action of forming a concept of something linguistic universals: existence of certain patterns across languages. These common patterns are known as universals linguistic typology: Is about those universal patterns which can be found in almost all languages. 2. Universals in language theory Typological universals: Typological universals are used in three different ways. The first way is the typological classification of a language to a certain type , we have for example the "isolating" type of language which lacks grammatical affixes. The second approach is the typological generalisation, which concerns itself with finding systematic patterns across different languages, and why we are able to predict to a certain degree patterns in specific languages. The last approach would be the functional typology. It goes one step further than the typological generalisation, because it also explains these patterns based on there use in communication. It must also be mentioned that generalisations stated by typologists have to be always checked in order to be maintained/uphold. Universals in formal linguistic 87 Chapter 3 Universals in cognitive linguistic 90 Chapter 3 3. Linguistic Relativity linguistic determinism: the idea that language determines non-linguistic thought linguistic relativity: the idea that speakers of different language will therefore think differently 122 Chapter 3, 3.4. The strong version of this hypothesis holds that language entirely determines thought: a speaker of language X will understand the world in a fundamentally different way from a speaker of language Y, particularly if those two languages have significantly different grammatical systems. In other words, a speaker will only have access to cognitive categories that correspond to the linguistic categories of his or her language. The weak version of this hypothesis, on the other hand, holds that the structure of a language may influence (rather than determine) how the speaker performs certain cognitive processes, because the structure of different languages influences how information is 'packaged'. 123 Chapter 3.4 Prove for this would be the basic colour terms experiment 124 Chapter 3 The position adopted in cognitive linguistics is that there are commonalities in the ways humans experience and perceive the world and in the ways humans think and use language. This means that all humans share a common conceptualising capacity. However, these commonalities are no more than constraints, delimiting a range of possibilities." 128 Chapter 3
4 Language in Use Usage-Based view on the language system: Language is learned through using it. Language is essentially a collection of words and structure that have meaning and we learn these meanings by using them. The language used derived the grammar not the grammar the language use. 135 Chapter 4 Language seen as not an specialised language modul but as the result of a general cognitive mechanisms. Language follows the same principles as other cognitive systems. Cognitive Grammar rejcets the idea of an words and rules system and sees it as an symbolic view of language. The language used derived the grammar not the grammar the language use. Through processes of abstraction and schematisation. A usage-based approach to language change Croft's Utterance Selection Theory: key assumption: language doesent change, the people change language through their actions. So language changes through its use by the people. (Usage-Based perspective on language change) Convention like the word dog are not easy to change. To change such a conviction (which everyone is following), innovation and propagation is needed. Which means that the change spreads through the linguistic community and becomes established as a new convention. The explanation of these phenomena of language change lies in the fact that "There cannot be a word or phrase to describe every experience that people wish to communicate" (Croft 2000.103). Language use has to be partly non-conventional if it is to express all human experience, yet it is also partly conventional in the sense that there has to be existing aspects of language. 150-151 Chapter 4 Replicator: an entity possessing structure that can be passed on Replication: The process of copying a replicator Normal Replication: The process of replication resulting in an exact copy altered Replication: The process of replication whereby the resulting replicator is different from the replicator it copies selection: the process whereby replicators are differentially perpetuated( some replicators are more successful than others) 153 Chapter 4 The usage-based approach to language acquisition Briefly summarise the empirical findings in language acquisition (4.4.1). Briefly explain the sociocognitive mechanisms that are relevant for lang acquisition (4.4.2) How does this usage-based approach differ from nativist approaches to language acquisition? (4.4.3) 161-167 Chapter 4
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