Handout 9-phonetics-orthography

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Ashford University **We aren't endorsed by this school
Course
SPANISH 102
Subject
Linguistics
Date
Oct 19, 2023
Pages
3
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LIGN 143 The Structure of Spanish Fall 2020 1 Standard Spanish Phonetics 1. Consonants "In order to form consonants, the airstream through the vocal tract must be obstructed in some way. Consonants can be classified according to the place and manner of this obstruction." Peter Ladefoged, A Course in Phonetics, 4 th ed., 2001, p. 5 Consonants bilabial labiodental dental alveolar postalveolar palatal velar obstruent oral stop p k voiceless b ɡ voiced fricative f θ s x voiceless β ð ɣ voiced affricate ʧ voiceless voiced sonorant (voiced) nasal stop m ɱ n ɲ ŋ lateral l ʎ tap ɾ trill Manners of articulation Oral stop: "Complete closure of the articulators involved so that the airstream cannot escape through the mouth [...] the soft palate is raised so that the nasal tract is [also] blocked off." ( p. 8 ) Fricative: "Close approximation of two articulators so that the airstream is partially obstructed and turbulent airflow is produced." ( p. 10 ) Affricate: "combination of a stop immediately followed by a fricative [at the same place]" ( p. 11 ) Nasal stop: Like an oral stop, except "the soft palate is down so that [the air] can go out through the nose" ( p. 9 ) Lateral: "Obstruction of the airstream at a point along the center of the oral tract, with incomplete closure between one or both sides of the tongue and the roof of the mouth." ( p. 11 ) Tap: "the tongue makes a single tap against the alveolar ridge" ( p. 11 ) Trill: "the tip of the tongue is set in motion by the current of air" ( p. 150 )
LIGN 143 The Structure of Spanish Fall 2020 2 Places of articulation Bilabial: "Made with the two lips." (p. 5) Labiodental: "Lower lip and upper front teeth." (p. 6) Dental: "Tongue tip or blade and upper front teeth." (p. 6) Alveolar: "Tongue tip or blade and the alveolar ridge." (p. 6) Postalveolar: "Tongue blade and the back of the alveolar ridge." (p. 7) Palatal: "Front of the tongue and hard palate." (p. 7) Velar: "Back of the tongue and soft palate [a.k.a. the velum]." (p. 7) 2. Vowels and such "In the production of vowel sounds, the articulators do not come very close together, and the passage of the airstream is relatively unobstructed. Vowel sounds may be specified in terms of the position of the highest point of the tongue and the position of the lips." ( p. 12 ) vowels front / spread central / spread back / round high i u mid e o low a Approximant: "An articulation in which one articulator is close to another, but without the vocal tract being narrowed to such an extent that a turbulent airstream is produced." (p. 11) [j] is a palatal approximant , which means that the blade of the tongue comes close, but not too close, to the palate. The tongue is thus relatively front in the mouth, and the lips are also spread, like [i]. [ʝ] is a palatal fricative , which means that the blade of the tongue comes close enough to the palate for turbulent airflow to be produced. [ʝʲ] is thus a somewhat more extreme articulation of [j]. [w] is a labiovelar approximant , which means that the dorsum of the tongue comes close, but not too close, to the velum. The tongue is thus relatively back in the mouth, and the lips are round, like [u]. [ɣ] is a velar fricative , which means that the dorsum of the tongue comes close enough to the velum for turbulent airflow to be produced. [ɣʷ] is thus a somewhat more extreme articulation of [w].
LIGN 143 The Structure of Spanish Fall 2020 3 "Standard" Letter-to-Sound Correspondences Letter or digraph Example words Sound (IPA symbol) a á guil a 'eagle' , p a dre 'father' [a] b / v b om b a 'bomb' , v erde 'green' [b] b / v nu b e 'cloud' , hier b a 'grass' , na v e 'ship' , sel v a 'jungle' [β] c / k / qu c ulpa 'blame' , k ilo 'kilo' , qu é 'what' [k] c / z c ine '(the) movies' , a c eite 'oil' , z orro 'fox' , a z ul 'blue' [s] / [θ] ch ch ompa 'sweater' , col ch a 'quilt' [ʧ] d d uen d e 'goblin' , fal d a 'skirt' [d̪ ] d po d er 'power' , pie d a d 'pity' [ð] e e spañol 'Spanish' , m e s 'month', lun e s 'Monday' [e] f f iloso f ía 'philosophy' , al f ombra 'rug' [f] g / gu g asto 'expense' , man g o 'handle' , gu ía 'guide' [ɡ] g / gu ho g ar 'home' , hí g ado 'liver' , se gu ir 'to follow' [ɣ] g / j / x g ente 'people' , sur g ir 'to surge' , j ugo 'juice' , Mé x ico [x] / [h] h h umo 'smoke' , a h ogar 'to drown' ø (zero, zilch, nada) i i nterno 'internal' , p i so 'floor', láp i z 'pencil' [i] hi / y hi elo 'ice' , ma y o 'May' , y ema 'yolk' [j] ~ [ʝʲ] i / y s i ete 'seven' , a i re 'air' , mu y 'very' [j] l l itro 'liter' , pe l o 'hair' [l] ll ll amar 'to call' , po ll o 'chicken' [ʎ] / [j] ~ [ʝʲ] m m esa 'table' , hu m o 'smoke', ho m bre 'man' [m] n n oche 'night' , pe n a 'grief', ma n tel 'tablecloth' [n] ñ ñ ato 'ugly' , sue ñ o 'sleep' [ɲ] o o s o 'bear' , s o mbra 'shade, shadow' [o] p p alo 'stick' , hi p o 'hiccup(s)', tiem p o 'time' [p] r pe r o 'but' , pa r te 'part', hoga r 'home' [ɾ] r / rr r abia 'anger' , son r isa 'smile' , pe rr o 'dog' [r̄] s / x s opa 'soup' , pa s o 'step' , x ilófono 'xilophone' [s] / [s̺ ] t t odavía 'still' , pa t o 'duck', pa t ria 'homeland' [t̪] u u va 'grape' , ba ú l 'trunk', trib u 'tribe' [u] u s u egra 'mother-in-law' , a u nque 'though' [w] hu / gu / gü / w hu eso 'bone' , gu ante 'glove' , ci eña 'stork' , w ater [w] ~ [ɣʷ] x e x ámen 'exam', ta x i 'taxi' [ks] / [s]
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