PHIL 101 lecture notes 32923 (2)

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PHIL 101
Nov 1, 2023
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1. There are truths about the past. 2. If there are truths about the past, then presentism is false. Therefore, 3. Presentism is false. Truthmaker principle: anything true is made true by some existing thing. (truth is matching reality) present things don't look like good truthmakers for truths about past. (pictures, books) Eternalism: all times are real (there are real things existing at non-present times, both past and future) Pure eternalism: all times are equally real (no matter when things exist, they are equally real) Persistence: lasting through time 1. if something changes, then it has incompatible properties. 2. nothing can have incompatible properties. 3. change is impossible, nothing ever changes the clear solution: put time back into this one option: temporal parts four-dimensionalism pure eternalism perdurantism (temporal parts theory) B theory of time For temporal parts theorists (aka perdurantists), change is variation across time. (the idea of variation (vs. change) is static) Some people interpret temporal theory as REJECTING change, rather than explaining it. essential vs. accidental properties essential properties: properties that a thing can't exist without, properties that describe the deep nature of something 4d solution to the statue-bronze puzzle:
the statue and the bronze are different persisting (i.e., cross-time) objects but they share some temporal parts 'the bronze' refers to the persisting object made up of parts 1-4 'the statue' refer to the one made up of parts 2-3. (so they overlap; they share parts) linguistic solution
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