CDS 444 Final Exam

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CDS 444
Sep 4, 2023
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Week 1 Digraphs: the letter (or pairs of letters) that make one phoneme based on spelling, not phonetics Syllables: mark peaks and valleys of auditory prominence in speech internal structure: onset, rime (consists of nucleus and coda) Stress: emphasis placed on syllable within a word or on a word in connected speech marked by increased pitch, duration, intensity Week 2 Vowels: oral/pharyngeal cavities are relatively unconstricted use diphthongs when the syllable receives PRIMARY stress tense vowels: /i, e, u, o, ɔ, ɑ, ɝ/ lax vowels: /ɪ, ɛ, æ, ʊ, ʌ, ə, ɚ/ lax vowels cannot appear in open stressed syllables diphthongs: comprised of 2 vowels, so they have changing vowel quality as the mouth changes from the onglide to the offglide Consonant: phoneme produced with closure/restriction Week 3 Liquids: produced with the tongue forming a partial closure of the vocal tract alveolar liquid /l/ palatal liquid /r/ Glides: produced by gliding the articulators from a constricted position onto a vowel palatal glide /j/ labiovelar glide /w/ Obstruents: stops, fricatives, affricates Sonorants: nasals, liquids, glides /r/ can be produced with bunched or retroflex tongue shape 3 areas of vocal tract narrowing: palatal, labial, pharyngeal [ɾ]: alveolar tap occurs in intervocalic positions Glottal stops often occur when /t/ or /d/ is followed by /n/ or substituted for [t] in word-final position Light [l]: occurs in prevocalic position (before vowel) Dark [l]: occurs in postvocalic position Week 4 Fundamental frequency: number of vibratory cycles per second Articulation disorder: diagnosed in clients who struggle to correctly produce a few phonemes (phoneme-specific errors)
Phonological disorder: mislearning of phonological rules of their languages (errors/phonological processes affect classes of sounds) Speech sound disorder: umbrella term for both articulation disorder and phonological disorder Phonological processes: (* marks atypical processes) syllable structure processes: simplifying structure of syllables to make them easier to say weak syllable deletion: omission of an unstressed syllable reduplication: one syllable (either partial or whole) is repeated final consonant deletion: deletion of word-final consonants cluster reduction: deletion of 1 consonant from a CC cluster, or 1-2 consonants from a CCC cluster coalescence: when a CC cluster is replaced with a single phoneme that has features from each consonant in the cluster initial consonant deletion*: when a word-initial C is omitted substitution processes: replacing one class of phonemes for another fronting: substitution of an alveolar consonant in place of a postalveolar, palatal, or velar consonant backing*: substitution of a post-alveolar, palatal, or velar consonant for an alveolar consonant stopping: substituting a stop for a fricative or affricate deaffrication: substitution of a fricative for an affricate affrication*: substitution of an affricate for a non-affricate gliding: substituting a glide for a liquid vocalization/vowelization: substitution of a vowel for a post-vocalic /r/ or /l/ glottal replacement*: substitution of glottal stop for other phonemes assimilatory processes: changing a phoneme to make it more like neighboring phonemes labial assimilation alveolar assimilation velar assimilation voicing assimilation prevocalic voicing: voiceless C before V is produced with voicing postvocalic devoicing: voiced C in coda position of syllable is produced without voicing Week 5 Phonological processes (cont.) epenthesis: insertion of extra phoneme into a word, often into a consonant cluster metathesis: transposition of phonemes in a word
not always error, sometimes a dialectal variation Week 6 Prelinguistic phase (infants): canonical babbling: umbrella term for all babbling; includes C's and V's in same syllable reduplicated babbling (bababa) variegated babbling: botagota) first word around ~12 months failure to use canonical babbling by 10 months is predictive of later vocabulary acquisition delay First Word Phase (toddlers) aka 50 words phase endpoint consonants (articulators that are either touching or far apart; stops, vowels, glides, nasals) are usually developed sooner than midpoints consonants (liquids, fricatives, affricates) ~24 months, 70% of child's consonants are correct relative to adult language Week 7 Preschool-age children usually comprehend more than they produce rapid growth in phonology during this period near 5th birthday, phonological inventory is nearly complete includes mastery of midpoint consonants all non-rhotic vowels mastered by age 3 processes expected to disappear by age 3 assimilatory processes weak syllable deletion final consonant deletion reduplication fronting
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