Final lang notes

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School
Dougherty Valley High **We aren't endorsed by this school
Course
ENGLISH 12
Subject
Linguistics
Date
Aug 3, 2023
Pages
2
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CHAPTER 4 NOTES sound systems of language: phonology main focus: phonological rules phonetic = speech sounds Chapter focuses on the full nature of speech sounds in languages. Specifically: how phonetic distinctions are significant to signal differences in meaning in a languages relationship between how sounds are stored in brain how they are pronounced in a language ways in which sounds are organized within words of a language influence neighboring sounds have on one another in pronouncing words in a language BACKGROUND a) The human vocal apparatus (articulatory phonetics): describes sounds in terms of their articulation in vocal tract, has been central to linguistics. Pronunciations cannot exceed limits created by the human vocal apparatus apparatus must move continuously from 1 sound to another as the speaker talks b) Utterances are a spoken word, statement or a vocal sound c) Nasalized : speech sounds uttered within the breath with the nose d) Voiceless sound: just uses air to make sound no voice e) Acoustically : related to sound IMPORTANT THINGS TO UNDERSTAND 1) Words need to be readily pronounceable. Words can be spoken 2) It's a must to know that different words have to be perceived as different . Meaning people should be able to recognize contrasts between 1 sound and another. Like Garvita needs to know the difference between ah and au sound. You should know difference between "Don't strategize" and "Don't stretch your eyes". Every sound should sound different otherwise you are just hearing the same thing over and over again! IN CONCLUSION: WORDS MUST BE EASY TO PRONOUNCE AND WORDS SPOKEN MUST BE HEARD AS DISTINCT. ACOUSTIC SIGNALS, EVEN THO SAME WORDS: ARE ALWAYS DIFFERENT BETWEEN DIFFERENT PEOPLE THINGS TO KNOW
PHONOLOGICAL RULES Phonology is the study of sounds systems and sound patterns Phoneme is an abstract mental sound segment that distinguishes meaning (minimal pair test) Allphones are predictable phonetic variants of phonemes; they occur in complementary distribution - they cannot occur in the same position, their positions are mutually exclusive An allophone of 1 language can be phoneme in another one - english/korean Phonemes are underlying representations of sound segments stores in the brain; underlying forms often differ from actual pronunciations; actual pronunciation are generated through the application of phonological rules the underlying abstract phoneme Within words, sounds are organized into syllables All syllables have a nucleus - vowel, and they may have an onset and or a coda forming a rhyme with the nucleus One and the same underlying bound morpheme may have different pronunciations depending on its phonetic environment; the predictable phonetic variants of underlying morphemes are called allomorphs What is a phoneme - It is an abstract sound segment stored in the brain that distinguishes meaning. Evidence for phonemes: minimal pair test - Two words are distinguished by 1 sound in the same position / t i m/ 'team' : / s i m/ 'seem' thus /t/ and /s/ are phonemes / mu/ 'moo' : / zu/ 'zoo' thus /m/ and /z/ are phonemes We can created minimal pairs for all phonemes of english - Allophones occur in complementary distribution
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