Introduction 250 In accordance with the theory of sociocultural learning, language is referred to as the direct outcome of the tools and symbols which emerge in a culture. A person gains the capability to learn language with the help of various scenarios, processes as well as social events that all outcome in language acquisition. This factor of the theory of sociocultural learning mainly depends on ideas that the learners go through all of the three stages of development of speech. First, they should involve within the social environment, this is called as social speech and starts when a child is 2 years old. Secondly, the children will acquire knowledge about the concept of private speech and this happens when the learners are able to provide voice to their thoughts and this starts when the learner is 3 years old. Lastly, the concept of inner speech that takes the idea form which remains in mind. It has been found that the concept of inner speech impacts the thoughts and behaviour of individual directly. This generally starts when the learner is 7 years old. There are several sociocultural factors which an impact learning of language and this includes discrimination, communication with the native speakers, stereotyping, racism, and familiarity with educational system, lack of recognition with culture as well as the status of the culture of a student in front of other people. Sociocultural learning is linked directly to language development as in order to gain more knowledge regarding the sociocultural background, it is important to learn new expressions, words and way of speaking. Literature review 750 Teacher-Child Interactions that Target Vocabulary Development in Two Preschool Classrooms: A Conversation Analytic Approach The sociocultural aspect of the sociocultural theory that is being referred here is that language is an important tool within the process of learning. This article mainly focuses in assistance of teachers in developing vocabulary of a child in a classroom. The paper offers conversations between teacher and children. This shows that child in their classroom everyday are developing oral language. Developing oral language includes reading books, everyday conversation, defining new words everyday and then connecting it with previous experiences of the children in order to activate the background knowledge of the student. The paper shows that this episode contributes validate the previous experience of the children while the learners are being introduced to some new words. It also shows that how teachers are discussing new words within a meaningful context. With the new words which were being introduced to the children, the teacher starts conversation. Another practice which has been showed in the article is offering repeated exposure to the new words. The article significantly shows that the preschools years are considered much important I order to promote the development of vocabulary. Reading books has been identified as the valuable context in order to target the skills. Shared Storybook Reading and Oral Language Development: A Bioecological Perspective
This article depicts that social interaction plan a significant role in the process of learning. The paper states that research of shared reading has increasingly become multidisciplinary and it has incorporated multitude of the assessment techniques. The article shows that in order to develop a well structured oral language, children require both model of proficient language and communicative opportunities. When children learn as a group, they get the opportunity to communicate with other people, this later helps to become proficient in speaking. It has been found in the article that active engagement of children and production of language during the shared reading seems to be of primary significance to learning of language. A comprehensive definition of situation of shared reading is required in order to comprehend with the contribution of these aspects as well as their relationships, specifically regarding the secondary analysis. Learning language through the process of shared reading is generally promoted when the adults and the children are involved in a sustained circumstanced of joint attention. This means that the children and adult share common goals with regards to the book of children and that both of them interact within shared reading. Similarities and difference between the three research articles After analysing all of the articles, it has been found that two of the articles are stating that reading books are the most effective way to develop oral language. The articles are "Shared Storybook Reading and Oral Language Development: A Bioecological Perspective"and "Teacher-Child Interactions that Target Vocabulary Development in Two Preschool Classrooms: A Conversation Analytic Approach".On the other hand, another article named "Conversations about Visual Arts: Facilitating Oral Language"is stating that conversation about the visual arts facilitates oral language. This fact is also considered under various circumstances. Studies suggest that visual arts like drawing are found attractive and interesting by most of the children and learning with the help of visual arts is also considered as an effective way of developing oral language among children. Also, two of the article states that shared learning is effective with valid reasons. Conclusion In accordance with the theory of sociocultural learning, language is referred to as the direct outcome of the tools and symbols which emerge in a culture. A person gains the capability to learn language with the help of various scenarios, processes as well as social events that all outcome in language acquisition. Sociocultural learning is linked directly to language development. Evaluating the entire paper, it has been identified that developing oral language is much important for children and they should learn this at very early stage such as when they are in preschool. Teacher, parents and any other member who often interact with a child can facilitate the skill of oral language among the children. Three articles has been analysed in the paper. The articles show that development of oral language is important for children and sociocultural theories are much helpful in acquiring the skill of oral language among children. When communication takes place between a child artist and an adult, the collaboration between
perception and personal history increases sharing, openness and consciousness. Learning language through the process of shared reading is generally promoted when the adults and the children are involved in a sustained circumstanced of joint attention.
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