LLW3007 Australian Citizenship

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LLW3007 AUSTRALIAN MIGRATION LAW AUSTRALIAN CITIZENSHIP NOTES
LLW3007 AUSTRALIAN CITIZENSHIP - 2 - LEGISLATION Readers may refer to these legislation: Criminal Code Act 1995 Readers should refer to these legislation: Australian Passports Act 2005 Readers must refer to these legislation: Australian Citizenship Act 2007 Australian Citizenship Regulations 2016 Australian Citizenship Instructions (ACI) Recommended reading: 'Defining Citizenship', by Associate Professor Helen Irving Disclaimer Every effort has been made to ensure that the material presented in this topic is accurate as at the publication date shown. Nevertheless, this material is issued by Victoria University and FCG Synergy Pty Ltd on the understanding that: Victoria University and FCG Synergy Pty Ltd, their officers, authors, or any other persons or agencies involved in the preparation of this publication expressly disclaim all or any contractual, tortious, or other form of liability to any person (purchaser or reader of this publication or not) in respect of the publication and any consequences arising from its use, including any omission made, by any person in reliance upon the whole or any part of the contents of this publication. No person should act on the basis of the material contained in this publication without obtaining advice relevant to his or her own particular situation and without considering and taking professional advice as may be necessary. © Victoria University & FCG Synergy Pty Ltd 2023 These materials are produced by FCG Synergy Pty Ltd on behalf of Victoria University for use on its Australian Migration Law courses. No persons shall copy or reproduce any parts of the materials herein for any other purpose without express authorisation or permission.
LLW3007 AUSTRALIAN CITIZENSHIP - 3 - CONTENTS 1. AUSTRALIAN CITIZENSHIP .............................................................................................................. 6 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................... 6 RESPONSIBILITIES OF AUSTRALIAN CITIZENSHIP ....................................................................... 9 PRIVILEGES OF AUSTRALIAN CITIZENSHIP ................................................................................... 9 ELIGIBILITY FOR AUSTRALIAN CITIZENSHIP ................................................................................. 9 CITIZENSHIP APPLICATION CHARGES ......................................................................................... 10 2. AUSTRALIAN TRAVEL DOCUMENTS ............................................................................................. 11 AUSTRALIAN PASSPORTS AND OTHER TRAVEL DOCUMENTS ................................................ 11 REFUSAL TO GRANT AND CANCELLATION OF AUSTRALIAN PASSPORTS ............................. 13 3. STATUS AT BIRTH ........................................................................................................................... 14 PLACE OF BIRTH (S.7(1)) ................................................................................................................ 14 POSTHUMOUS CHILD (S.7(2)) ........................................................................................................ 14 CHILD BORN OF ARTIFICIAL CONCEPTION PROCEDURES (S.8) .............................................. 14 4. AUTOMATIC ACQUISITION OF AUSTRALIAN CITIZENSHIP ........................................................ 15 PERSONS BORN IN AUSTRALIA BEFORE 21 AUGUST 1986 ....................................................... 15 PERSONS BORN IN NEW GUINEA BEFORE 16 SEPTEMBER 1975 ............................................ 15 PERSONS BORN IN AUSTRALIA ON OR AFTER 21 AUGUST 1986 (s.12(1)(a)) .......................... 17 PERSONS WHOSE PARENT(S) ARE NEW ZEALAND CITIZENS .................................................. 17 AUTOMATIC ACQUISITION OF CITIZENSHIP ON TENTH BIRTHDAY (S.12(1)(b)) ...................... 17 BIRTH TO ENEMY ALIEN IN ENEMY OCCUPIED TERRITORY (S.12(2)) ...................................... 18 CITIZENSHIP BY ADOPTION (S.13) ................................................................................................ 18 CITIZENSHIP FOR ABANDONED CHILDREN (s.14) ....................................................................... 18 CITIZENSHIP BY INCORPORATION OF TERRITORY (s.15) .......................................................... 19 5. CITIZENSHIP BY DESCENT ............................................................................................................ 20 PERSONS BORN OUTSIDE AUSTRALIA OR NEW GUINEA BEFORE 26 JANUARY 1949 (s.16(3)) ............................................................................................................................................. 20 PERSONS BORN IN PAPUA BEFORE 16 SEPTEMBER 1975 (PNG INDEPENDENCE DAY) (s.21(7)) ............................................................................................................................................. 20 PERSONS BORN OUTSIDE AUSTRALIA ON OR AFTER 26 JANUARY 1949 (s.16(2)) ................ 20 6. CITIZENSHIP BY ADOPTION UNDER THE HAGUE ADOPTION CONVENTION .......................... 22 7. CITIZENSHIP BY CONFERRAL ....................................................................................................... 23 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................................................ 23 EXEMPTIONS FROM THE GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ............................................................... 23 NORMAL RESIDENCE AND EXEMPTIONS (S.22) .......................................................................... 24 ADMINISTRATIVE ERRORS (s.22(4A)&(5)) ..................................................................................... 24 SIGNIFICANT HARDSHIP OR DISADVANTAGE (s.22(6)) .............................................................. 24 PARTNERS AND WIDOWS OF AUSTRALIAN CITIZENS (s.22(9)&(11)) ........................................ 24 DEFENCE SERVICE (s.23) ............................................................................................................... 26 SPECIAL RESIDENCE (ss.22A-22C) ................................................................................................ 26 PERSONS WHO ACQUIRED PERMANENT RESIDENCE PRIOR TO 1 JULY 2007 ...................... 28 ABSENCES FROM AUSTRALIA ....................................................................................................... 28 ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND AUSTRALIAN CITIZENSHIP TEST ..................................................... 29 8. PERSONS OF NATIONAL SECURITY OR CHARACTER CONCERN ............................................ 32 PERSONAL IDENTIFIERS (SS.10, 40-45) ........................................................................................ 32 NATIONAL SECURITY CONCERN (S.3) .......................................................................................... 32 CONFINEMENT IN PRISON ETC (s.22(1C)) .................................................................................... 32 9. CANCELLATION OR DEFERRAL OF APPROVAL .......................................................................... 34 10. CESSATION AND RESUMPTION OF CITIZENSHIP ..................................................................... 35 RENUNCIATION (SS.33 and 33AA) .................................................................................................. 35 REVOCATION (ss.33A, 34, 34A and 34AA) ...................................................................................... 35 SERVICE IN ENEMY ARMED FORCES OR DECLARED TERRORIST ORGANISATION (SS.35, 35A and 35AA) .................................................................................................................................. 36 CONVICTION FOR TERRORISM AND RELATED OFFENCES (S.35A) ......................................... 36
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