REPUBLIC ACT No. 4136 AN ACT TO COMPILE THE LAWS RELATIVE TO LAND TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC RULES, TO CREATE A LAND TRANSPORTATION COMMISSION AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS ARTICLE ARTICLE I Title and Scope of Act Section 1.Title of Act.- This Act shall be known as the "Land Transportation and Traffic Code." Section 2.Scope of Act.- The provisions of this Act shall control, as far as they apply, the registration and operation of motor vehicles and the licensing of owners, dealers, conductors, drivers, and similar matters. ARTICLE II Definitions Section 3.Words and phrases defined.- As used in this Act: (a) "Motor Vehicle" shall mean any vehicle propelled by any power other than muscular power using the public highways, but excepting road rollers, trolley cars, street-sweepers, sprinklers, lawn mowers, bulldozers, graders, fork-lifts, amphibian trucks, and cranes if not used on public highways, vehicles which run only on rails or tracks, and tractors, trailers and traction engines of all kinds used exclusively for agricultural purposes. Trailers having any number of wheels, when propelled or intended to be propelled by attachment to a motor vehicle, shall be classified as separate motor vehicle with no power rating. (b) "Passenger automobiles" shall mean all pneumatic-tire vehicles of types similar to those usually known under the following terms: touring car, command car, speedster, sports car, roadster, jeep, cycle, car (except motor wheel and similar small outfits which are classified with motorcycles), coupe, landaulet, closed car, limousine, cabriolet, and sedan. Motor vehicles with changed or rebuilt bodies, such as jeepneys, jitneys, or station wagons, using a chassis of the usual pneumatic-tire passenger automobile type, shall also be classified as passenger automobile, if their net allowable carrying capacity, as determined by the Commissioner of Land Transportation, does not exceed nine passengers and if they are not used primarily for carrying freight or merchandise. The distinction between "passenger truck" and "passenger automobile" shall be that of common usage: Provided, That a motor vehicle registered for more than nine passengers shall be classified as "truck": And Provided, further, That a "truck with seating compartments at the back not used for hire shall be registered under special "S" classifications. In case of dispute, the Commissioner of Land Transportation shall determine the classification to which any special type of motor vehicle belongs.
(c) "Articulated vehicle" shall mean any motor vehicle with a trailer having no front axle and so attached that part of the trailer rests upon motor vehicle and a substantial part of the weight of the trailer and of its load is borne by the motor vehicle. Such a trailer shall be called as "semi-trailer." (d) "Driver" shall mean every and any licensed operator of a motor vehicle. (e) "Professional driver" shall mean every and any driver hired or paid for driving or operating a motor vehicle, whether for private use or for hire to the public. Any person driving his own motor vehicle for hire is a professional driver. (f) "Owner" shall mean the actual legal owner of a motor vehicle, in whose name such vehicle is duly registered with the Land Transportation Commission. The "owner" of a government-owned motor vehicle is the head of the office or the chief of the Bureau to which the said motor vehicle belongs. (g) "Dealer" shall mean every person, association, partnership, or corporation making, manufacturing, constructing, assembling, remodeling, rebuilding, or setting up motor vehicles; and every such entity acting as agent for the sale of one or more makes, styles, or kinds of motor vehicles, dealing in motor vehicles, keeping the same in stock or selling same or handling with a view to trading same. (h) "Garage" shall mean any building in which two or more motor vehicles, either with or without drivers, are kept ready for hire to the public, but shall not include street stands, public service stations, or other public places designated by proper authority as parking spaces for motor vehicles for hire while awaiting or soliciting business. (i) "Gross weight" shall mean the measured weight of a motor vehicle plus the maximum allowable carrying capacity in merchandise, freight and/or passenger, as determined by the Commissioner of Land Transportation. (j) "Highways" shall mean every public thoroughfare, public boulevard, driveway, avenue, park, alley and callejon, but shall not include roadway upon grounds owned by private persons, colleges, universities, or other similar institutions. (k) "The Commissioner of Land Transportation or his deputies" shall mean the actual or acting chief of the Land Transportation Commission or such representatives, deputies, or assistants as he may, with the approval of the Secretary of Public Works and Communications, appoint or designate in writing for the purpose contemplated by this Act. (l) "Parking or parked", for the purposes of this Act, shall mean that a motor vehicle is "parked" or "parking" if it has been brought to a stop on the shoulder or proper edge of a highway, and remains inactive in that place or close thereto for an appreciable period of time. A motor vehicle which properly stops merely to discharge a passenger or to take in a waiting passenger, or to load or unload a small quantity of freight with reasonable dispatch shall not be considered as "parked", if the motor vehicle again moves away without delay. (m) "Tourist" shall mean a foreigner who travels from place to place for pleasure or culture.
ARTICLE III Administration of Act Section 4.Creation of the Commission.- (a) There is created under the Department of Public Works and Communications an office which shall be designated and known as the Land Transportation Commission, composed of one Commissioner and one Deputy Commissioner, who shall be vested with the powers and duties hereafter specified. Whenever the word "Commission" is used in this Act, it shall be deemed to mean the Land Transportation Commission, and whenever the word "Commissioner" is used in this Act, it shall be taken to mean the Commissioner or Deputy Commissioner. The Commissioner and the Deputy Commissioner shall be natural-born citizens and residents of the Philippines, and they shall be appointed by the President of the Philippines, with the consent of the Commission on Appointments of the Congress of the Philippines: Provided, however, That the present Administrator, Assistant Administrator and the personnel of the Motor Vehicles Office shall continue in office without the necessity of reappointment. (b) The Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner shall hold office until removed in accordance with the provisions of the Revised Administrative Code. (c) The Commissioner shall receive an annual compensation of twelve thousand pesos and the Deputy Commissioner, an annual compensation of ten thousand four hundred pesos. The Commissioner shall be assisted by one head executive assistant (MV regulation adviser or chief), one administrative officer, one registration regulation chief, one inspection, examination and licensing regulation chief, one law and traffic enforcement regulation chief, one provincial regulation chief, one utility and property regulation chief, one accounting officer, one internal chief auditor, and one personnel officer, who shall receive an annual compensation of nine thousand pesos each; eight land transportation regional directors who shall receive an annual compensation of eight thousand four hundred pesos each and eight land transportation assistant regional directors, who shall receive an annual compensation of seven thousand pesos each and ten assistant regulation chiefs, who shall receive an annual compensation of seven thousand pesos each. (d) The Commission shall have its offices in Quezon City where the present Motor Vehicle Office is located, and shall establish a regional branch office each in Tuguegarao (Cagayan), Baguio City, Pasig (Rizal), Lipa City, San Fernando (La Union), Naga City, Cebu City, Iloilo City, Cagayan de Oro City, and Davao City, to be headed by a regional director who will have immediate administration, supervision and control over activities and administration of the Commission in the respective regions. The Commissioner shall be responsible for the administration of this Act and shall have, in connection therewith, the following powers and duties, in addition to those mentioned elsewhere in this Act: (1) With the approval of the Secretary of Public Works and Communications, to issue rules and regulations not in conflict with the provisions of this Act, prescribing the procedure for the examination, licensing and bonding of drivers; the registration and re-registration of motor vehicles, transfer of ownership, change of status; the replacement of lost certificates, licenses, badges, permits or number plates; and to