Wandiri Socio-Economic Challenges Facing Sudanese Women Refugees In Kasarani Division, Nairobi And

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BIO 2331
Nov 19, 2023
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items in the open but people in NRV it is observed that people not only carry traditional lethal weapons openly, they actually carry guns openly even in the presence of the law enforcement agents133. These ad hoc directives are issued at the discretion of the provincial administrators who have been delegated powers to enforce them as they deem fit. We note that the ad hoc state directives are among the key factors impacting on milieu of issues informing cattle-rustling in NRV. One which continues to impact on the security architecture in NRV disarmed one community and armed another without guaranteed security. It shifted the balance of power and perpetuates conflict as the disarmed community quickly rearmed and disparaged state support. For instance relentless disarmament in Samburu of 1997 to 2005 exposed Samburu to Turkana and Pokot attacks and enhanced their expansion into Samburu and Laikipia districts134. It > contributed to the observed reluctance to disarm whenever the state calls for it, since disarmament without assurance of security for the disarmed people is dangerous and short term in nature since the status quo ante resumes soonest1 j5. Another policy provides for creation of KPRlj6. Basing on this policy, community based KPR are appointed and armed by the state, ostensibly to defend the communities. Thus instead of monopolising the provision of security, the state ceded responsibility. Creation of KPR has very serious impacts; firstly, due to distance, command and control of the KPR is nonexistent. They are left to decide when, where and whom to protect using state provided fire arms as the state adopts a laisez faire. Secondly; the KPR abuse the facility and responsibility and accompanied their tribesmen on rustling missions or rented the guns and thus state arms were used to escalate rustling. Thirdly, the state lost local support, and community confidence1 ''* 6 7. 0 For example the "shoot to kill'*order issued by the Ministry of State for IS and PA, concerning police action on cattle-rustlers and general criminals. Kennedy Agade Mkutu. Guns and Governance in the rift Valley: Pastoralist Conflict and Small Arms, (African Issues, 2008) pp 11.117 to 122. 135 Ibid, pp 7. 6 The Kenya Police Act. 13 Jonah Leff, op cit. 45
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