Wandiri Socio-Economic Challenges Facing Sudanese Women Refugees In Kasarani Division, Nairobi And

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Nov 19, 2023
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These laws are widely applied by provincial authority to fight cattle-rustling. For instance, in Operation Nyundo, Pokot livestock was confiscated en mass to coerce the communities to hand in weapons. The instrument has also been applied in many other disarmament operations in Turkana, Samburu and Isiolo. In the April to July 2009 Isiolo clashes Samburu livestock was confiscated en mass. Many of the confiscated animals get lost or die. Beside such animals are pilfered by senior officers and provincial administration10". Communities not only consider communal punishment an abuse to their customs, the also consider these Acts as direct licence to rob and impoverish them to enrich political and administrative elites. They have occasionally resisted communal punishment in bloody clashes as exemplified by the Isiolo debacle of the year ^009 where several policemen lost their lives in clashes against Samburu and Pokot herders in Samburu East. Interestingly the patron client nature of politics continues to encourage selective application of these laws reversing the gains got from enforcement thereby escalating impunity. The policing, justice and correction services are paralysed by interference whenever politically correct culprits are arrested. Pursuits of stolen livestock are often called off on orders from higher authorities, as state instruments are used to perpetuate rustling10J. Disarmament is also discriminative for instance the government armed Pokot communities ostensibly to protect them from Karamojong attacks just while concurrently disarming Turkanas164. There is evidence that due to the lack of confidence in the formal legal process as adduced from the foregoing, an informal legal system runs in parallel and in competition with the formal one16 '. It l6' Kennedy Agade Mkutu. Guns and Governance in the Rift V,alley: Pastoralist Conflicts and Small Arms. (African Issues. 2008), pp. 34. Interview of ASTU officer, such incidences are also recorded in interviews with military personnel who had stints in areas of Baragoi, Chesogon and Nginyang. In this interview it was intimated that in 1995, a military sub- unit whose base camp had been located strategically to intercept a known route for loot rustled from the Marakwet by Pokot was ordered to move away and when they resisted the provincial administration actually sanctioned the order through minutes of a District Security Committee and thus the unit had to shift to another area to enable stolen cattle to be moved freely. 164 Nene Mburu. 51
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