Majority rule in Terry:
Police officer may in "appropriate circumstances" approach a
suspect to investigate possible criminal behavior despite the fact
that the officer does not have probable cause to make an arrest
The standard for stops is reasonable suspicion.
Terry v Ohio (1968) Brief
Was his right to personal security violated by an unreasonable search and
Argued that the police should be allowed to 'stop' a person and
detain him briefly for questioning upon suspicion of criminal
Argued against, that the police must be strictly circumscribed by
the law of arrest and search.
Alabama v. White (1990)
Police had reasonable suspicion to stop White based on facts provided by
Informant made a number of accurate predictions:
The building she left, time of departure, automobile, and
Close case due to totality of circumstances
Anonymous tip, exhibited sufficient indicia of reliability.
Arizona v. Johnson (2009)
Traffic stop frisking of a passenger.
A passenger who was wearing a bandana of a gang and lived in a
neighborhood known as the gang's location was asked to step out
of the vehicle and frisked.
Found that police are able to interrogate and investigate criminal activity
on the part of the passengers that is unrelated to the purpose of the
traffic stop so long as the investigation does not extend the duration of
May frisk a passenger or driver when there are reasonable grounds to
believe the passenger or drive is armed and dangerous.
Minnesota v Dickerson (1993)
Right of police officer conducting a frisk to seize illegal narcotics.
Must have immediate probable cause to believe the items they
encountered are illegal narcotics.
Permits law enforcement to seize contraband that they view
during the course of a lawful search
Based on an officer's touch rather than visual examination
Permits police to seize an object that the officer's physical
examination indicates is contraband