CRJU206 Final Review

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CRJU 206
Sep 23, 2023
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Chapter 9: Wrongful Death Modes of Death Accidental Death Ex: drowning, falling, automobile wrecks, accidental drug overdose Often murders are disguised to appear to be accidental in nature Natural Death Ex: heart attack, stroke, disease, old age Sometimes the deceased will have been under a doctor's care, but often the mode of death is questionable For example, a person might have been forced to consume certain drugs that can cause death, but the symptoms indicate death from "natural" causes (e.g., heart attack). Suicide Ex: stabbing, shooting, drug overdose, carbon monoxide poisoning As with other modes of death, investigators should be sure that the cause of death was actually suicide and not murder designed to look like suicide Murder Example: wounds from handguns and shotguns, cutting and stabbing wounds, blunt-force injuries, poisoning, asphyxia (strangulation) Manslaughter Voluntary Manslaughter Killing out of an act of passion but lacking premeditation Involuntary Manslaughter Accidental or nonintentional death with severe negligence Murder First Degree Knowingly causes death after deliberation Second Degree Knowingly causes death while committing a criminal act Wrongful Death Spree Killing Killing at two or more locations with little time break Mass Murder The killing of four or more victims at one location within one event Serial Murder The killing of several victims in three or more separate events
The Preliminary Investigation The first officer on the scene has the following responsibilities Determine whether or not the victim is dead Contact medical help if needed Apprehend the perpetrator(s) if present Make appropriate notifications Safeguard the crime scene Detain any witnesses Conducting a Homicide Investigation Protect the crime scene from unauthorized persons Take notes during the early stages Identify the victim and look for other identifies such as wounds, blood, and prints Be prepared to draft a sketch of the scene Identifying the Victim Don't remove body until after processing of crime scene Efforts to identify the victim may begin with a cursory inspection of the victim's personal effects, clothing, and papers/other documentation that may be nearby (e.g., a driver's license). Dying Declaration A dying declaration is admissible if the proponent of the statement can establish Unavailability of the declarant The declarant's statement is being offered in a criminal prosecution for murder or in a civil action The declarant's statement was made while under the belief that his or her death was imminent The declarant's statement must relate to the cause or circumstances of what the declarant believed to be his or her impending death Estimating Time of Death In the fresh stage (1), algor mortis, the cooling of the body's temperature to that of its surroundings. A body will feel cool to the touch 8 to 12 hours after death and remain at the same temperature as its surroundings for about 24 hours after death Postmortem lividity: where the blood settles to the bottom side of the body Occurs 30 mins to 4 hours after death. After 12 hours, the body will not diminish in color and will remain unchanged Rigor mortis, the process of stiffening, will set in 2 to 4 hours after death Typically reaches completion 8 to 12 hours after death
Gunshot Wounds Smudging A ring that results from gunpowder being deposited around the wound Like tattooing, smudging also indicates distance Tattooing Tiny pinpoint hemorrhages resulting from the discharge of unburned powder Tattooing helps investigators determine the distance between the victim and the firearm What is indicated from gunshot residue? Firing distance Length and diameter of the firearm Characteristics of the gunpowder The angle between the firearm barrel and target Characteristics of the cartridge Exit wounds Larger than the entrance wounds because the bullet has expanded or tumbled while traveling through the body. Usually does not exhibit gunshot residue Blood drops and spatters can reveal The distance from its origin/point of impact The direction of travel Chapter 10: Robbery Robbery : the theft or attempted theft, in a direct confrontation with the victim, by force or the threat of force or violence Houses are not "robbed", they are Burgled! Victims of robbery are not actually "robbed" unless the burglar encounters someone in the structure or uses force or threatens them in order to complete the theft. Victims of burglary often claim that they were "robbed." Such incidents are not actually robbery unless: The burglar encounters someone in the structure, and The burglar uses force or threatens them in order to complete the theft For example, pocket-picking and purse-snatching are not really robberies unless the victim resists and is overpowered. Motivations for robbery: To obtain money Peer influence among juveniles Thrill-seeking
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