Trademark (Wu) Outline - Fall 2019 (MAIN) (1)

Yeshiva University **We aren't endorsed by this school
LAW 7577
Sep 10, 2023
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7I. OVERVIEW 1 A. T HEORIES OF T RADEMARK L AW 1 B. T RADEMARK L AW IN C ONTEXT 2 II. PROTECTABLE MARKS 5 A. D ISTINCTIVENESS 5 B. S ECONDARY M EANING 7 C. G ENERICNESS 8 Proving Genericness 9 Acronyms of Generic Words 13 D. T YPES OF M ARKS 13 Five Types of Marks 13 Slogans and Informational Phrases 14 Non-Word Marks 15 COLORS 15 OTHER TYPES OF MARKS 16 E. T RADE D RESS 16 When is Something Inherently Distinctive? 18 Distinguishing Product Packaging from Product Design 18 F. F UNCTIONALITY 19 Aesthetic Functionality 20 III. ACQUISITION OF RIGHTS 23 A. U SE 23 Principles of Use 23 Token Use 24 Analogous Use 24 Priority 25 B. T RADEMARK U SE 27 C. R EGISTRATION 28 Five Bases of Registration 28 Process of an application under §1(a) or §1(b): 28 After Registration 28 Advantages of a TM Registration on the Principal Register 29 Registration under §1(b) -- intent to use 29 Foreign Applications 30 Registration Under §44(e) - Q UALIFIED F OREIGN R EGISTRATION 30 Registration Under §44(d) -- QUALIFIED FOREIGN APPLICATION 30 Registration Under §66 - M ADRID P ROTOCOL E XTENSIONS 30 D. P RIORITY 32 E. C ONCURRENT U SE 33 F. T ERRITORIALITY 36 Methods of Protection for Foreign Marks 37 Famous Marks Doctorine and State Unfair Competition Law 38 G. B ARS TO R EGISTRATION UNDER THE L ANHAM A CT 39 Absolute Bars to Registration under the Lanham Act: 39 Marks that can be registered if they acquire 2º meaning under Lanham Act: 39 H. S CANDALOUS AND D ISPARAGING M ARKS 39 I. N AMES 40 False connection 40
Names 41 Personal names 42 J. D ECEPTIVE M ARKS 42 K. G EOGRAPHIC M ARKS 44 Primarily geographically descriptive marks 44 Primarily geographically deceptively misdescriptive marks 45 L. A BANDONMENT 47 Non-Use 47 Assignment in Gross 49 Naked Licensing 49 IV. LIABILITY 51 A. L IKELIHOOD OF C ONFUSION 51 Evidence of Actual Confusion 55 use in commerce by D 56 Likelihood of Confusion in the Registration Context 57 B. T RADE D RESS I NFRINGEMENT 59 Private Labels and Store Brands 61 C. A PPROVAL C ONFUSION 62 Merchandising cases 63 D. P OST -S ALE C ONFUSION 64 E. I NITIAL I NTEREST C ONFUSION 66 Initial interest confusion on the Internet 67 Overview of infringement 68 F. S ECONDARY L IABILITY 69 Contributory Liability 69 Reasonable remedial efforts 70 Vicarious Liability 71 G. D ILUTION 71 Background 71 Dilution by Blurring 73 Parody 76 Dilution by Tarnishment 77 H. D OMAIN N AMES 79 In Rem Jurisdiction 80 Bad Faith 80 Typosquatting 82 Gripe Sites 82 Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy 83 I. R EMEDIES 84 V. DEFENSES 86 A. I NCONTESTABILITY 86 B. C LASSIC F AIR U SE 87 C. N OMINATIVE F AIR U SE 89 Comparative advertising 91 D. S PEECH 91 Artistic Expression 91 Non-Commercial Uses 92 Not "in connection with goods and services" 93
Overview of Speech Defenses: 93
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