ASRJC 2021 MYCT P2 Passage

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1 ANDERSON SERANGOON JUNIOR COLLEGE JC 2 Midyear Common Test 2021 ______________________________________________________________________________ GENERAL PAPER 8807/02 PAPER 2 24 May 2021 INSERT 1 hour 30 minutes ______________________________________________________________________________ READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST This Insert contains the passages for Paper 2. ______________________________________________________________________________ This document consists of 3 printed pages and 1 blank page. [Turn over
2 Passage 1: Pete Gregory thinks that preservation of heritage has considerable value 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Our heritage is a legacy from our past. It is something we live with today and, hopefully, something that we can pass on to future generations. Our cultural heritage is both a record of life in the past and also an irreplaceable source of creativity. For these reasons an increasing number of countries have launched initiatives designed to protect and preserve their own cultural heritages. This has been true throughout history and is even truer today. Witness the story of ancient Rome. In 425 AD when the city of Rome was over 1000 years old, the Emperor Majorian, concerned about the demolition of historic buildings, decreed that any public official who authorised such work should be fined 50 kg of gold while those of lesser rank be flogged and have their hands amputated. Today, those who are knowledgeable value heritage, preserving what is good about the past and teaching others about the worth of what they have inherited - not like those who are ignorant and destructive, who wish to dispense with heritage in the name of modernisation, and thereby deny others the opportunity to treasure what their society has passed on to them. Cultural Heritage is often expressed as either Intangible or Tangible Cultural Heritage. In its tangible form, it is buildings, art works and the like and in its intangible form, it is values, beliefs and customs. To borrow Gandhi's idea, heritage links to a culture that resides in the hearts and souls of people. It is not to be viewed as just a curiosity - archaic and irrelevant. Perhaps some may think that heritage is unnecessary in modern times. But for others, exploring cultural heritage offers a robust variety of benefits. It allows people to relate to others of similar mindsets and backgrounds. Cultural heritage can provide a satisfying sense of unity and belonging, and allows us to understand previous generations and our history. Those who do not believe that cultural heritage is of value may easily become lonely. On a practical level, an attractive heritage environment can attract external investments as well as maintain existing businesses of all types. Food stalls, gifts, souvenir shops and art outlets can all become part of the rich tapestry of these wonderful environments. When tourists and locals visit the Art museums of France or the ancient civilisation museums of Egypt, the benefit is twofold: enlightenment and enjoyment for the visitor and vital income and higher standard of living for those employed in the heritage industry. But there is a further and probably more important dimension to intangible culture. A dizzying array of traditions that are still practised - music, dance, holy processions carnivals, and ethnic cuisines - makes present day culture vibrant and everyone gets to appreciate the rich cultural diversity. When heritage promotes dialogue, people develop mutual respect for those of different heritage. The focus on heritage, of all kinds, can be a driver for cooperative community action, and equality can be achieved through a focus on heritage matters. These powerful results of appreciation of heritage help to foster individual civic responsibility and contribute to everyone's well -being. I live in a cosmopolitan city that abounds in surviving links to the past. Cities are a hive of cultural activities. Every day, in the languages I hear, in the food I eat, the building I work in, the attire of men and women and the forms of entertainment I can watch and participate in, I am connected to the city inhabitants that have dwelt here before me. I am privileged to be able to be a part of all this. After all, our cultural heritage, like our DNA, determines who we are, giving us both identity and the values that will guide our lives in a changing world. 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
3 Passage 2 : Phoebe Phua questions the value of heritage preservation 1 2 3 4 5 Mosul's old city lies in ruins. A major section of the third largest city in Iraq has been destroyed by war. Many live amid the ruins of their old houses and old lives. After Mosul was recaptured from ISIS in 2017, the Iraqi government, with the help of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), launched a campaign called 'Revive the Spirit of Mosul', but this was exclusively focused on the handful of historic monuments in the city. Its seeming indifference to the lives of the people who call the city home is striking. UNESCO's promotional video pans through the old city; block after block after block lies completely devastated ... only for the camera to abandon them for the one monument that will actually be rebuilt. What kind of heritage preservation is this, and who benefits from it? Definitely not the residents. Instead, it appears that the main beneficiaries are the governments gaining prestige by launching and funding this campaign. Cases such as Mosul's highlight an irony about heritage - as counterintuitive as it is, it is primarily about the present. Heritage can be defined as the assemblage of culture, people, places, traditions and artefacts, which are inherited from the earlier generations to the present and subsequently passed down. Governments harness the power of heritage to justify present social relations, especially unequal relations of power. The lives and needs of poorer individuals and communities are trampled over while the wealthy convert their dubiously acquired wealth into cultural capital, all in the name of heritage. And often, in our conviction that we must protect the remains of the past, the rest of us are swept up in the enthusiasm. We do not even question what typically counts as heritage worthy to be preserved and what is not. Furthermore, governments increasingly look to remains of heritage to bolster national identities and a sense of greatness, or to marginalise disfavoured groups. Saddam Hussein used the ruins of Babylon to spread ideas of Iraq's greatness and his own, even portraying himself as a modern Nebuchadnezzar (the greatest king of the Babylonian Empire). China's leadership has used archaeology to convince their people that they all have 'undoubtedly' descended from one common group of ancestors. Today , India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi's Hindu nationalist government uses archaeology to prove that modern Hindus can trace their descent from the earliest inhabitants of India. However, in a supposedly secular nation like India, home to over six major world religions, such claims have caused divisions between the Hindus and the members of minority religious groups. This is a stark reminder that heritage preservation has the ability to divide as much as it can unite. Preservation of heritage is also often focused on monetary gains. However, not all of these trickle down to those who own this 'heritage' itself. Luang Prabang , an ancient city of Laos which graces the covers of travel magazines worldwide and the tourism sector, was expected to rake in money for the locals. However, it has only served to raise prices in the city while foreign multinational corporations cash in on the tourism boom. Furthermore, centuries-old Buddhist ceremonies have been reduced from a magical spectacle to a rowdy sightseeing circus as age-old traditions are being codified and sanitized to make them more palatable for a more international crowd. Traditional ceremonies and landmarks have been commercialized and are now out of the financial reach of the locals themselves. In the end, many locals lament that in the attempt to preserve heritage, physical markers of heritage have been saved but the soul of the heritage has gone missing. Whether we look at political, economic or military capital, one thing is clear. Heritage is a top-down idea - it is defined and used by the most powerful members of society, rather than by society as a whole. Heritage preservation tells people - it does not ask them - what they should care about. 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
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