Guided Lecture #2-Duarte (1)

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Name_ Kate Duarte_ Period_ Bridge(SMHS)_ Date_ April 10,2023_ Guided Lecture #2 The Arms Race: A "Missile Gap?" __ The S oviet Union __exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. Now there were__ two ___nuclear superpowers. Arms Race _ Col d War _ tensions increased in the _ US _when the USSR exploded its _first_ atomic bomb in __ 1949 __. Cold War tensions increased in the USSR when the US exploded its first hydrogen bomb in _ 1952 _. It was _ 1000 _times more powerful than the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Sputnik I (1957) The Russians have beaten _ America _in space-They have the _ technological _ edge. Space Race Cold War tensions increased in the US when the USSR launched _ S put nik I _ , the first _ artificial satellite _ into geocentric orbit on October 4, 1957. The race to control space was on. April 12, 1961: _ Yuri Gagarin _ became first human in space and first to orbit Earth. US felt a loss of _prestige_ and increased funding for space programs and science education. On May 25,1961, Kennedy gave a speech challenging America to land a man on the moon and return him safely by the end of the decade. Apollo 11 landed on the moon on _July 16, 1969_. The U-2 Incident USSR was aware of American __U-2 spy m issions __ but lacked technology to launch countermeasures until _1960_ . _May 1, 1960_ : CIA agent __F rancis Gary Powers' __ U-2, was shot down by Soviet missile. Powers was unable to activate plane's self- destruct mechanism before he parachuted to the ground, right into the hands of the _KGB_ . When US learned of Powers' _ disappearance over USSR_ it issued a cover statement claiming that a "weather plane" crashed after its pilot had "difficulties with his oxygen equipment." US officials did not realize: o Plane crashed _intact _ ,
o Soviets recovered its photography equipment o Captured Powers, whom they interrogated extensively for months before he made a "voluntary confession" and public apology for his part in US espionage o Col. Francis Gary Powers' plane was shot down over Soviet airspace. The Bay of Pigs Invasion The _Bay of Pigs In vasion _ was an unsuccessful attempt by US-backed Cuban exiles to overthrow the government of the __C uban dictator Fidel Castro __ . Increasing friction between the US and Castro's communist regime led President _Eisenhower_ to break off diplomatic relations with _Cuba_ in January 1961. Even before that, however, the CIA had been training anti-revolutionary _Cub an exiles _ for a possible _invasion of the island_ . The invasion plan was approved by _Eisen hower's successor _ , John F. Kennedy. On April 17, 1961 about _1300 exiles_ , armed with US weapons, landed at the Bahía de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) on the southern coast of Cuba hoping for support from locals. From the start, the exiles were likely _to lose_ . Kennedy had the option of using the __ Air Force against the Cubans but decided against it __ . Consequently, the invasion was stopped by _Castro 's army _ . The failure of the invasion seriously embarrassed the Kennedy administration. Some critics blamed _Kennedy_ for not giving it adequate support Others blamed Kennedy for allowing it to take place at all. Additionally, the invasion made Castro wary of the US He was convinced that the _Americans would try to take over the Cuba again_ .
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