Name_Kate Duarte_Period_Bridge(SMHS)_Date_April 10,2023_ Guided Lecture #2 The Arms Race: A "Missile Gap?" ●__TheSoviet Union__exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. ●Now there were__two___nuclear superpowers. Arms Race ●_Cold War_ tensions increased in the _US_when the USSR exploded its_first_atomic bomb in __1949__. ●Cold War tensions increased in the USSR when the US exploded its first hydrogen bomb in _1952_. It was _1000_times more powerful than the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Sputnik I (1957) ●The Russians have beaten _America_in space-They have the _technological_ edge. Space Race ●Cold War tensions increased in the US when the USSR launched_Sputnik I_, the first _artificialsatellite_ into geocentric orbit on October 4, 1957. ●The race to control space was on. ●April 12, 1961:_Yuri Gagarin_became first human in space and first to orbit Earth. •US felt a loss of_prestige_ and increased funding for space programs and science education. •On May 25,1961, Kennedy gave a speech challenging America to land a man on the moon and return him safely by the end of the decade. •Apollo 11 landed on the moon on_July 16, 1969_. The U-2 Incident ●USSR was aware of American__U-2 spy missions__but lacked technology to launch countermeasures until_1960_. ●_May 1, 1960_: CIA agent__Francis Gary Powers'__U-2, was shot down by Soviet missile. ●Powers was unable to activate plane's self-destruct mechanism before he parachuted tothe ground, right into the hands of the_KGB_. ●When US learned of Powers'_disappearanceover USSR_it issued a cover statement claiming that a "weather plane" crashed after its pilot had "difficulties with his oxygen equipment." US officials did not realize: oPlane crashed_intact_,
oSoviets recovered its photography equipment oCaptured Powers, whom they interrogatedextensively for months before he made a "voluntary confession" and public apology forhis part in US espionage oCol. Francis Gary Powers' plane was shot down over Soviet airspace. The Bay of Pigs Invasion ●The_Bay of Pigs Invasion_was an unsuccessful attempt by US-backed Cuban exiles to overthrow the government of the__Cuban dictator Fidel Castro__. ●Increasing friction between the US and Castro's communist regime led President _Eisenhower_to break off diplomatic relations with_Cuba_in January 1961. ●Even before that, however, the CIA had been training anti-revolutionary_Cuban exiles_ for a possible_invasion of the island_. ●The invasion plan was approved by_Eisenhower's successor_, John F. Kennedy. ●On April 17, 1961 about_1300 exiles_, armed with US weapons, landed at theBahía de Cochinos(Bay of Pigs) on the southern coast of Cuba hoping for support fromlocals. ●From the start, the exiles were likely_to lose_. Kennedy had the option of using the __Air Force against the Cubans but decided against it__. ●Consequently, the invasion was stopped by_Castro's army_. The failure of theinvasion seriously embarrassed the Kennedy administration. ●Some critics blamed_Kennedy_for not giving it adequate support ●Others blamed Kennedy for allowing it to take place at all. ●Additionally, the invasion made Castro wary of the US He was convinced that the _Americans would try to take over the Cuba again_.