University of Guelph **We aren't endorsed by this school
SOC 1500
Health Science
Mar 26, 2023
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The Impact of Stress & Techniques for Stress Management Understanding Stress What is Stress? Subjective feeling produced by events perceived as uncontrollable and threatening One person may perceive it as uncontrollable and one may perceive it as controllable Stress and is psychological and physiological Recognizing Stress? Physical symptoms (headaches, upset stomach, muscle tension, etc..) Chest pains, rapid heartbeat Trouble sleeping Decreased appetite; more intake of "comfort foods" Becoming sicker more often Difficulty focusing Anxiety Stress & Stressors Stressors The events, demands, & experiences, producing stress Are perceived as extreme in some manner (and overwhelming) Any stressor should be significant enough to evoke an emotional response (eg, anxiety, distress) A stressor tends to be beyond our control in the sense that we need to do something to address it Are perceived as uncontrollable Stress Response What are major stressors for students?
Pressure of grades Time management Money (tuition) Getting enough sleep Primary Appraisal Theory: Cognition & Stress Primary Appraisal People perceive an event as a threat to their goals Secondary Appraisal And, they conclude (perceive) that they do not have the resources to cope with the event/stress Stress Among Young Adults Millennials report highest stress levels than other (older) age groups Some Forms of Stress Major life events —> cause stress & require people to make a significant adjustment Example: transitioning to university Both positive and negative events can provoke stress Daily Hassles —> provide minor stress for most people Even sustained minor stress can have both psychological and physical consequences Acute Stress Results from sudden onset demands (eg, a last min assignment or task) Traumatic Stress Major occurrence of acute stress, often involving an actual or perceived threat to one's life or another's The Impact of Stress General Adaptation Syndrome Alarm Stage Fight or flight response Resistance Stage Body uses resources at high rate to combat stress Exhaustion Stage Elevated illness susceptibility when resources depleted
Stress & Sleep Stress-sleep cycle The presence of stress creates less sleep - more sleep - less sleep - more sleep - and so on Recommended Sleep : 7-9 hours per night —> average for most people: 6.7 hours Impact of insufficient sleep 53% feel sluggish 38% feel irritable 29% have difficulty focusing Stress Between Stress & Illness Stress Indirect (through behaviors) Direct (reduction in immune system functioning) Illness Stress & Illness are NOT Inevitable Kelly McGoniagal's TED Talk: Studies She Referred To Rethinking stress as not harmful (or even beneficial) positively impacts health outcomes Helping others is associated with a reduced impact for stress (i.e, resilience) Managing Stress Coping - the process used to manage demands, stress, and conflict Problem focused coping Emotion focused coping Responding to stress... Avoidance Drinking Self-injury Drug use Coping Exercise Mindfulness, meditation, relaxation Journaling & creative activities
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