Week 12

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School
University of British Columbia **We aren't endorsed by this school
Course
FNH 200 101
Subject
Health Science
Date
May 16, 2023
Pages
5
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Lesson 12 Toxicants and Foodborne Disease Facts: - 3000 people die every year from foodborne illness - 4 million canadians suffer every year from foodborne illness - Foodborne illnesses can result in chronic health problems in 2-3% of cases CFIA Food Recall Warnings vs Foodborne Outbreaks Main causes of foodborne illnesses in the order of importance - From general public perspective - Food additives - From regulatory agency perspective - Microorganisms Definitions: - Incident: simple occurrence of foodborne illness - Outbreak: - 2 or more people after ingestion of the same food - Epidemiological evidence - Outbreak of unknown etiology: - No epidemiological evidence Foodborne disease incidents Known Etiology (causes) - Parasitic - Parasites such as Cryptosporidium (water); Anisakiasis (fish) - Acquired from consumption of infested water / foods - Plant - Amanita mushrooms, taro leaves, green potatoes - Animals: - Poisonous animals (shellfish containing paralytic toxins, puffer fish etc) - Chemical - Cleaning and sanitizing agents - Microbiological: - food/waterborne diseases (FBD) Why is foodborne diseases emerging? - Globalization of food supply - Pathogens introduced to new areas - Travel, change in lifestyle Reasons why only SOME FBD outbreaks are documented - Lack of reporting: only 1-4% are reported - Mistakenly diagnosis - Mlkd cases of FBD wrongly attributed to - 24 hour flu
- Virus - Eating too much - Physician fail to report the case to local health units - Not enough evidence / research available Who is most at risk? - Very old, very young, weakened immune systems, expectant/pregnant mothers Food intoxication: - Toxins responsible - Produced in foods as by-products of MOs, plants,or animals - Cause disease upon ingestion - Example: Clostridium Botulinum - Low acid foods (pH > 4.6) and anaerobic conditions, potatoes, carrots - Symptoms: double vision, dry mouth, paralysis - Actively growing cells → botulinum, neurotoxin - LD: 1ng/kg - Prevention: - Vegetative cells easily killed by heat - Spores (heat resistant) - Botulinum cook → destroy 10^12 spores - Example: Escherichia Coli O157: H7 - Foods: undercook ground beef; unpasteurized milk and fruit juice, alfalfa sprouts, spinach, drinking water - acid -tolerant: often survive in acidic foods (eg. apple juice) - Symptoms: bloody diarrhea → kidney failure; hemolytic uremic syndrome (especially in children) - Prevention: - Easily inactivated by heat (pasteurization); irradiation
- Cook ground beef well - Does not grow well at temperatures <8-10C - Hygiene (sanitary food handling) Foodborne infection - Multiplication of pathogenic MOs responsible - Viable MOs in the food at the time of consumption - Grow in host to cause illness - Examples: Salmonella - Foods: raw/undercooked poultry, eggs, hogs, ground beef, milk and dairy products - Symptoms: cramps, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, fever - Symptoms usually start within 6-72 hours after exposure - Most symptoms end within 4-7 days - Prevention: - Killed by heat (cook, pasteurization) and irradiation; hygiene (sanitary food handling) - Examples; Listeria Monocytogenes - Foods: refrigerated smoked fish, raw or unpasteurized milk, soft and unpasteurized cheeses, ready-to-eat meats - Symptoms: fever, nausea, cramps, diarrhea, vomiting - Symptoms of severe listeriosis may appear up to 70 days after you have been exposed - Reported to cause miscarriage and stillbirth - Prevention: - Killed by heat (cook, pasteurization) and irradiation; hygiene (sanitary food handling) Viruses: - Do not multiply in foods - oral -decal route of contamination; infect upon ingestion - Shellfish from contaminated water - Eg. Norovirus - Foods: refrigerated smoked fish, raw or unpasteurized milk, soft and unpasteurized cheeses, ready-to-eat meats - Symptoms: diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, stomach cramps, symptoms of gastroenteritis within 24-48 hours, but symptoms can start as early as 12 hours after exposure - Prevention: killed by heat (cooking, pasteurization) and irradiation ; hygiene (sanitary food handling) Factors in foodborne disease: - Inadequate cooling of foods - Preparation of food several hours in advance - Poor personal hygiene and cross-contamination
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