Unit 1 Introduction of sedimentary rock origin (1)

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22-01-2020 1 Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology Dr. Atul Kumar Patidar Petroleum Engineering & Earth Sciences 2020 PEGS-2002 Disclaimer : This presentation is prepared for academic understanding of the students about Basics concepts of Sediment Transportation and Deposition. Ref: Research gate, books and google.com. DR ATUL KUMAR PATIDAR, 2020 Is there any need of this course for Petroleum Engineers...? Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology Course Syllabus Unit 1 Introduction of sedimentary rock origin Rock Cycle, Weathering processes, Sediment Transportation and Deposition- Bedload, Traction and Suspension, Laminar and Turbulent Flow, Reynolds Number, Transport by Wind, Fluvial and Glacial process. Unit 2 Physical properties of sedimentary rock Sedimentary textures- Grain-Size Scales, Graphical analysis of Grain-Size Data, Particle Shape- Sphericity, Roundness, Sorting, Fabric- Grain Orientation, Grain Packing, Grain-to-Grain Relations, Maturity, Porosity and Permeability concept. Sedimentary Structure- Bedding, Lamination and Stratification, Cross-Stratification, Classification of sedimentary structures- Primary, Secondary and Organic, Concepts of Paleocurrent analysis. Unit 3 Composition and classification of sedimentary rocks Clastic and Non-clastic sedimentary rocks. Classification of Sandstones and Carbonate rocks, Characteristics of Major Classes- Rudaceous Rocks, Arenaceous Rocks, Argillaceous Rocks, Carbonate Rocks, Evaporite Rocks. Lithification , Early and Late Diagenesis. Unit 4 Sedimentary depositional environments Concept of sedimentary facies, Continental environments, Marginal-marine environments, Siliciclastic marine environments, Carbonate and evaporite environments. Unit 5 Fundamentals of sequence stratigraphy Eustasy, Sea level, Subsidence and Tectonics, System tract and Sequence boundary, Seismic facies and Sequence analysis. Unit 6 Petroleum Geology (a) Fundamental Concepts: Origin of Petroleum (Inorganic and Organic theories). Concept of petroleum system- Composition, generation, migration and accumulation of Hydrocarbons. (b) Petroleum System Characterization: Source rock analysis- Composition of Petroleum and gas, Kerogen maturation, Influencing factors. Reservoir rocks (clastic and carbonate)- Physical properties of rocks, Net to Gross ratio (NTG), Effects of Diagenesis on reservoir quality, Porosity and permeability. Migration and charge access- Primary, secondary migration and controlling factors. Traps and Seals- Fundamentals of Trapping Mechanism- structural, stratigraphic and combined traps, Seals and Cap Rocks, Timing of Trap development relative to migration. Brief overview of Seismic data interpretation for play to prospect maturation . Risk matrix & geological chance of success, Ranking and risking and basics of volumetric estimates. An outline of Indian petroliferous basins in view of importance of sedimentology in petroleum exploration. PEGS 2002 Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology Book: Introduction to Sedimentology - S.M Sengupta Sedimentary Rocks - F.J Pettijohn Other reference Books: 2010- Petroleum Geoscience by Knut Bjørlykke Sedimentary rocks in the field (Maurice_Tucker) Department of Geological Sciences, University of Durham, UK Reference material can be from: Alexei Milkov- Colorado School of Mines Richard Cheel- Brock University, Canada Michael Ala- The Imperial college Lecture series TEXT BOOK: 1. Sengupta, S.M., Introduction to sedimentology, ISBN-10: 9054102306 2. Pettijohn;, F.J. (1975): Sedimentary Rocks (3rd Ed.), Harper and Row Publ., New Delhi. 3. Knut Bjørlykke., Petroleum Geoscience, Springer, 2010. ISBN 978-3-642-02331-6 REFERRENCE BOOKS: 1. Levorsen AI. Geology of petroleum. Berry FA, editor. San Francisco: WH Freeman; 1967. 2. Selley, R., Applied Sedimentology 2nd Edition, ISBN: 9780126363753 3. Sam Bogg Jr., Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy. ISBN 0-13-154728-35. 4. Sukhtankar, R. K., Applied Sedimentology, CBS Publisher, ISBN: 9788123910529, 5. Reading, H.G. (1997): Sedimentary Environments and facies, Blackwell Scientific Publication. 4. Hunt, M.J., 1979. Petroleum geochemistry and geology. WH Freeman and company Modes of Evaluation: Quiz/Assignment/ presentation/ Written Examination Scheme: Components Internal Assessment MSE ESE Weightage (%) 30 20 50 Credits : 3 Classroom lectures: 36 Quiz/ Test: ....? Assignment: ....? Attendance 75%
22-01-2020 2 Course Outcomes (COs) CO1 Understand of physical, chemical, and biological processes that generate, transport, and deposit sediments (Unit I: Introduction of sedimentary rock origin). CO2 Recognize the sedimentary rocks based on their texture and structure for palae-ocurrent analysis (Unit II: Physical properties of sedimentary rock). CO3 Comprehend the basic classification of sedimentary rocks and diagenesis process (Unit III: Composition and classification of sedimentary rocks). CO4 Able to apply sedimentary facies technique used for depositional environment studies (Unit IV : Sedimentary depositional environments). CO5 Analyze and use the stratigraphic principles of Geology in depositional model construction (Unit V: Fundamentals of sequence stratigraphy). CO6 Evaluate the petroleum system using fundamental principles and concepts of Petroleum geology (Unit VI: Petroleum Geology). Course Objectives 1. To introduce students about the properties of Sedimentary rocks that deals with Petroleum exploration. 2. To understand the different types of sedimentary rocks, their texture and structures. 3. To develop the knowledge of sedimentary facies, depositional environment, lithification and diagenesis. 4. To understand the concept of sequence stratigraphy used in field and seismic interpretation. 5. To learn, latest geological/ geophysical techniques used in Petroleum system delineation. 1. Concept of petroleum system characterization- Reservoir, source, composition, generation, migration, sealing and accumulation of Hydrocarbons. 2. Brief overview of Seismic data interpretation for play to prospect maturation . Risk matrix & geological chance of success, Ranking and risking and basics of volumetric estimates. 3. Examples of Seismic data interpretation from BP/ Reliance industries Ltd acreages , Prospect ranking and risking, Geological chance of success, Risk matrix preparation. 4. Subsurface core data analysis from ONGC data. 5. Depositional environment understanding (GDE/ CRS mapping). 6. An outline of Indian petroliferous basins in view of importance of sedimentology in petroleum exploration (Will try to make an assignment on this topic). Reference material from: Alexei Milkov- Colorado School of Mines Richard Cheel- Brock University, Canada Michael Ala- The Imperial college Lecture series Highlights of this course Introduction of sedimentary rock origin Dr. Atul Kumar Patidar Petroleum Engineering & Earth Sciences 2020 Sedimentary rocks are typically layered, (although layering is not diagnostic of only sedimentary rocks) UNIT-1 Course Syllabus Unit 1 Introduction of sedimentary rock origin Rock Cycle, Weathering processes, Sediment Transportation and Deposition- Bedload, Traction and Suspension, Laminar and Turbulent Flow, Reynolds Number, Transport by Wind, Fluvial and Glacial process. Unit 2 Physical properties of sedimentary rock Sedimentary textures- Grain-Size Scales, Graphical analysis of Grain-Size Data, Particle Shape- Sphericity, Roundness, Sorting, Fabric- Grain Orientation, Grain Packing, Grain-to-Grain Relations, Maturity, Porosity and Permeability concept. Sedimentary Structure- Bedding, Lamination and Stratification, Cross-Stratification, Classification of sedimentary structures- Primary, Secondary and Organic, Concepts of Paleocurrent analysis. Unit 3 Composition and classification of sedimentary rocks Clastic and Non-clastic sedimentary rocks. Classification of Sandstones and Carbonate rocks, Characteristics of Major Classes- Rudaceous Rocks, Arenaceous Rocks, Argillaceous Rocks, Carbonate Rocks, Evaporite Rocks. Lithification , Early and Late Diagenesis. Unit 4 Sedimentary depositional environments Concept of sedimentary facies, Continental environments, Marginal-marine environments, Siliciclastic marine environments, Carbonate and evaporite environments. Unit 5 Fundamentals of sequence stratigraphy Eustasy, Sea level, Subsidence and Tectonics, System tract and Sequence boundary, Seismic facies and Sequence analysis. Unit 6 Petroleum Geology (a) Fundamental Concepts: Origin of Petroleum (Inorganic and Organic theories). Concept of petroleum system- Composition, generation, migration and accumulation of Hydrocarbons. (b) Petroleum System Characterization: Source rock analysis- Composition of Petroleum and gas, Kerogen maturation, Influencing factors. Reservoir rocks (clastic and carbonate)- Physical properties of rocks, Net to Gross ratio (NTG), Effects of Diagenesis on reservoir quality, Porosity and permeability. Migration and charge access- Primary, secondary migration and controlling factors. Traps and Seals- Fundamentals of Trapping Mechanism- structural, stratigraphic and combined traps, Seals and Cap Rocks, Timing of Trap development relative to migration. Brief overview of Seismic data interpretation for play to prospect maturation . Risk matrix & geological chance of success, Ranking and risking and basics of volumetric estimates. An outline of Indian petroliferous basins in view of importance of sedimentology in petroleum exploration. 1. Formation of Sedimentary rocks Weathering Deposition Transportation Consolidation 2. Lithification of deposited sediments Compaction Cementation 3. Classification of Sedimentary rocks 4. Texture of Sedimentary rocks 5. Structure of Sedimentary rocks Mechanical structure Chemical structure Organic structure 6. Varity of Sedimentary rocks Sedimentary Rocks The Rock Cycle
22-01-2020 3 Sedimentary Rock Cycle http://www.mtsu.edu/~cdharris/GEOL100/erosion/sed-rk-cycle.gif Sedimentary Rocks Description of certain important sedimentary rocks is given in S. K. Garg Page (146-153) Video Link: Introduction to Sedimentary Rocks https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Etu9BWbuDlY Identifying Sedimentary Rocks -- Earth Rocks! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U3eR19ZfBqE Types of rock weathering 1. Physical Weathering: the breakdown of rocks and minerals into smaller pieces, changing size and shape but without a change in chemical composition. 2. Chemical Weathering: the breakdown of rocks and minerals into smaller pieces by chemical action , at the same time it changes chemical composition . The end result is different from the original rock. 3. Bio-logical Weathering: This type is related to activities by various organisms, plants Image from google.com Frost wedging: Cracking of rock mass by the expansion of water as it freezes in crevices and cracks. Similar to the crystal growth. Thermal expansion and contraction: repeated heating and cooling of materials cause rigid substances to crack and separate Exfoliation: As underlying rock layers are exposed, there is less pressure on them and they expand. Abrasion: Moving sediments or rock sections can break off pieces from a rock surface they strike. The sediments can be moved by wind or water and the large rock sections by gravity. Physical (Mechanical) Weathering Chemical Weathering Agents of chemical weathering: 1) Hydration 2) Oxidation 3) Dissolution 4) Acid Carbonation Precipitation Plant Acid Factors that influence chemical weathering: Climate: Wet and warm maximizes chemical reactions. Plants and animals: Living organisms secrete substances that react with rock. Time: Longer contact means greater change. Mineral composition: Some minerals are more susceptible to change than others. Sediment Transportation and Deposition: Bedload Traction and Suspension
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